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1960-1980 Print

The International Astronautical movement had its beginnings shortly after World War II. It was based upon the realisation that wartime developments in rocket technology could make possible the ancient dream of flight in space.

Commencing in 1950, International Astronautical Congresses were held with a common purpose: consideration of how artificial earth satellites and manned space flight might transpire in their lifetime. The year 1955 was pivotal. In July, during the Sixth International Astronautical Congress (at Copenhagen), the United States and the Soviet Union announced national programmes to launch satellites for scientific purposes in conjunction with the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958).

Suddenly, space flight became professionally respectable and -for a variety of national interests- worthy of much deeper study. Hundreds, and soon thousands, of the finest minds in science and engineering in academe and industry were turned to the solution of problems to be solved for the accomplishment of national space flight programmes.

Two years later, just as delegates were arriving in Barcelona, the stunning news broke of the launch of Sputnik 1. The Space Age had arrived; and the first serious discussion was held concerning the formation of an "Academy of Astronautics".

Many prominent scientists of different nations participated in the Academy's earliest activities: T. Von Karman, E. Sanger, A.A. Blagonrarov, L.I. Sedov, A.G. Haley, F. Malina, B. N. Petrov, L. Shepherd and many others.

Vladimir KOPAL has written a thorough history of the formation and development of statutes for the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). Countless hours were spent in the varied drafts of the IAA Bylaws. Under Past Presidents C. Stark Draper, George E. Mueller, Michael I. Yarymovych and current President Edward C. Stone, many changes evolved. These changes have made possible the significant growth in membership and activities of the Academy.

The Role of History in the Academy

The founding of the International Academy of Astronautics coincided with the beginning of manned space flight. In the twenty-five years since its establishment there have been great achievements in the development of rockets and of travel into space made possible by them. Astronautics is now firmly and permanently in the foreground of scientific and technological progress, influencing the development of individual branches of science and technology.

It is not by chance that the general public takes such great interest in the development and history of rocketry and astronautics. These surely represent one of the most brilliant pages in the general history of science and technology.

At the first general meeting of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) in Washington, D.C., on 3 October 1961, it was decided to establish within its framework a history committee. The task set forth for this committee was to stimulate the preparation of scholarly studies in the history of rocketry and astronautics in various countries from ancient to modern times.

Subsequently, a Committee on the History and Development of Rockets and Astronautics was approved composed of the following: Chairman Ch. DOLLFUS (France), Vice Chairman R. PESEK (Czechoslovakia), A. BUSEMANN, (USA), C.H. GIBBS-SMITH (UK), A.G. HALEY (USA), F.J. MALINA (USA), J. NEEDHAM (UK), I. SANGER-BREDT (FRG), and V.S. VON EULER (Sweden). The Committee's name was later changed to History of Astronautics Committee.

The first Committee meeting was held on 27 September 1963 in Paris to discuss its structure as well as planned programmes and activities. The second meeting in Athens (14 September 1965) included reports by its members, discussion of the main trends of Committee activities, and the establishment of a working group for the preparation of an International Symposium on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics. Subsequently, the Committee met regularly during the Annual International Astronautical Congress to consider various problems connected with ongoing activities. On 26 September 1967 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, the first history symposium was held. It was chaired by R. PESEK.

Since then, international history symposia have been held each year. They have been attented by many prominent scholars, pioneers of modern rocketry and astronautics, and specialists in the history of science engaged in these fields. Veterans of rocket construction, who started their work as early as the 1920s and '30s, have presented memoirs.

Young researchers, taking their first steps in investigating the history of the various branches of rocketry and astronautics, attented, too.

Eighteen symposia were held during the International Academy of Astronautics' first quarter century, with more than 200 papers presented. Representatives from some 20 countries traced the development of rocketry and astronautics in Austria, China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Italy, Korea, Poland, Rumania, the Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.

No attempt is made herein to offer a detailed analysis of all the lectures delivered during the first eighteen years of History of Astronautics Committee activities. Note is simply made that during this period many new findings were circulated throughout the scientific community that have contributed to specific knowledge and, in many cases, have radically revised established ideas concerning individual stages and trends in the development of rocketry and astronautics. In addition, many papers have presented new and original contributions to the reference literature.

Through the papers delivered at history symposia, specialists have obtained access to a large quantity of interesting information on the development of rocketry in such countries as Hungary, Korea, Rumania, Spain and Sweden. Previously, there had been no detailed written presentations describing their accomplishments.

Eighty-two papers have already been published, mainly from the proceedings of the first six history symposia but including selected papers from later ones. Some 50 additional papers have been prepared for publication. Work is continuing to assure that all papers presented at the annual history of astronautics symposia appear in the proceedings.

The History of Astronautics Committee originally had a single task: to stimulate scholarly studies in the history of rocketry and astronautics. More recently, its activities have changed and expanded and new problems have been faced within the sphere of its activities.

In 1973, the Committee decided on a regular exchange of information concerning research into the history of rocketry and astronautics in various countries. The plan was to publish newsletters containing information on national activities submitted by members during the year. Among the topics to be covered were: (1) conferences, meetings and symposia; (2) works (books and articles) in the field published during the year; (3) scientific centers, and individuals, conducting research relevant to the history of rocketry and astronautics: (4) training of scientists and engineers for research in the field; and (5) problems relating to history, as reflected in museums and exhibitions.

The Committee issued several bulletins covering the period 1973 to 1982; and, in 1981, began preparation of a list of significant events (calendar dates) in rocketry and astronautics. This list is compiled yearly with the aim of drawing to the attention of various international and national organizations, dates associated with such significant events as anniversaries of prominent inventions and discoveries; anniversaries of the founding of national and international institutions; and outstanding scientific and historical developments that have played an important role in the evolution of rocketry and astronautics. In 1982, at the suggestion of the History of Astronautics Commitee, the IAA Board of Trustees decided to institute Academy Honorary Diplomas for the best writings on the history of rocketry and astronautics, and for contributions to the development of historical research. The first diplomas were awarded in 1983 to W. BUEDELER (FRG), K. GATLAND (UK) and V.N. SOKOLSKY (USSR).

As the present account reveals, much work was accomplished by the History of Astronautics Committee during its first years of existence. But much remains to be done.

Committee membership has been considerably strengthened and enlarged to the point that it numbers seventeen specialists from ten countries and undertakes both organisational and theoretical work. Among the main tasks before the Committee are to improve research into the history of science and to pay increased attention to theoretical and methodological problems. More effort is required to strengthen international scientific relations, to organise an even wider exchange of scientific and technological information and publications on the history of rocketry and astronautics, and to promote the training of specialists engaged in research in these areas.

Conception, Birth & Childhood of the IAA

1 Introduction

In the years immediately following the Second World War, astronautical societies and groups, a few of which had already existed in the pre-war years, began to function in a number of countries. With the great step forward in rocket technology, the possibility of space flight was being taken more seriously and the societies attracted a greater proportion of professional scientists and engineers to their memberships. There was considerable communication between these societies and a strong desire for a working international collaboration began to emerge. This was brought to a head when, in June 1949, the Board of Directors of the Stuttgart Gesellschaft fur Weltraumforschung (GfW) passed a resolution calling for an international meeting of all societies concerned specifically with rockets, interplanetary flight and space research, to foster collaboration and consider the possibility of forming an international astronautical association. The resolution was communicated to other national societies and, in particular, a request to organise such a meeting was made to the British Interplanetary Society (BIS) which was at that time one of the two largest national astronautical societies (the other being the American Rocket Society, ARS).

The BIS readily agreed to do this in London, but required two years for its adequate preparation, having in mind a major conference, along the lines of the subsequent congresses. The BIS offer was accepted, but there was a strong feeling that the affair ought not to be delayed by as much as two years; and, in that situation, M. Alexandre ANANOFF, President of the Groupement Astronautique Francais of the Aeroclub de France, offered to organise a preliminary meeting of the interested societies in Paris.

The meeting took place, as promised, between 30 September and 2 October 1950, and was publicly described as the "Premier Congres International d'Astronautique" a style of title that was adopted in the subsequent annual meetings. It involved a large and impressive public gathering held on the afternoon of 30 September in the Richelieu Grand Amphitheatre of the Sorbonne, and two business meetings held on the mornings of the following Monday and Tuesday at the Paris headquarters of the French Aeroclub. The latter were attented by the representatives of astronautical societies from eight countries (Argentina, Austria, Britain, Denmark, France, Spain, Sweden and Germany) and by four independent individuals, pioneers distinguished in the field of rocket technology, one of whom was Dr Eugen SANGER, who was one of the architects of our Academy.

The outcome of these business discussions was an agreement that there be set up an international organisation devoted to the study and development of interplanetary flight, and that the act of establishing such a body should be the main purpose of the Second International Astronautical Congress, to be held in London in September 1951. A provisional committee, consisting of the leaders of the delegations at Paris under the chairmanship of Eugen SANGER, was appointed to represent the proposed organisation and the BIS was charged with collecting and co-ordinating the views of the various societies during the intervening period, and producing from these a set of proposals covering the nature and constitution of the intented body. This was done, the proposals were circulated, and the International Astronautical Federation was duly founded at the London Congress, where the representation had been augmented by delegates from four other countries (Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland and the USA) who, thereby, joined the ranks of the founder-member societies. SANGER was elected first President of the Federation, with Andrew G. HALEY and Guenter LOESER as the Vice-Presidents.

The relevance of this to the history of the Academy was that the seeds of its conception already resided in the arguments and ideas that were discussed in Paris, and that were pursued further during the intervening period preceding the London Congress.

Thus, there was a clear distinction between the views of those who believed that the international body should be an overall society made up of individual members, and those who considered that it should be a Federation of "Member-Societies". The latter view prevailed from the outset. Of course, the Academy when it finally emerged, could not be described as an international astronautical society in the sense envisaged by the pioneers at the Paris meetings, for it is an organisation having an exclusive membership, strictly limited in number. Any international astronautical society, by contrast, would have set out to attract a maximum number of members, subject to their satisfying some specified rules of qualification. However, amongst the ideas that flowed into London in the period between the first and second Congresses, was one which was arguably the seed from which the concept of the Academy was to emerge. In a letter to the chairman of the BIS council (dated 16 February 1951) Dr SANGER advanced the suggestion that the Federation should eventually "encourage the foundation of an international Astronautical Research Institute, and even be charged with the administration of it". His idea was that such an Institute might be financed through UNESCO, as well as by other contributions from national societies, individuals and firms. The proposal was independently expressed and amplified by the Stuttgart GfW in correspondence between Dr G. LOESER and A.V. CLEAVER of the BIS.

The idea of founding an International Astronautical Research Institute was generally acknowledged to be too ambitious or, at least, premature, though lip service continued to be paid to it over a period of many years. However, to some extent, the concept of the Academy of Astronautics derived from that of the Research Institute, and the two were in fact coupled in the 1959 resolution. It is appropriate, here, to remark that Dr SANGER remained a strong advocate of the Research Institute and later of the Academy.

Both of these proposed bodies were to become the subject of debate in the ensuing years. In the case of the Academy, no formal action was taken until. At the congress's second plenary session, Mr A.G. HALEY, addressing the President stated, "Dr SANGER, Dr VON KARMAN and I are working on the idea of an Academy of Astronautics, and I have submitted a document to you for your examination". Mr HALEY went on to recommend that consideration of the document should be deferred to the next congress. However, an ad hoc Committee was created at the Barcelona Congress and Mr HALEY circulated the document in question to the members of that committee and to the Presidents of the member societies, suggesting that it should be considered by the Committee in drawing up its proposals. The document by VON KARMAN, Dr SANGER and Andrew G. HALEY was entitled, "Report on Organisational Matters Pertaining to the Academy of Astronautics of the International Astronautical Federation".

The preamble to the report stated:

"Article 6 of the constitution of the International Astronautical Federation provides that one of the aims... shall be as follows:

it has been suggested that an Academy of Astronautics be created. The Academy would be composed of individuals who have distinguished themselves in aspects of the natural and social sciences related to Astronautics".

The report went on to propose an amendment to the constitution to provide for such an academy to be established, and set out a form of resolution embodying the proposal together with a suggested constitution.

In any event, there proved to be insufficient time available to deal with the Academy proposal in the plenary sessions in Amsterdam congress, and so a resolution of the matter was further deferred until the following Congress.

At the second plenary session of the council, on 2 September 1959 in London, under the presidency of Andrew HALEY, the Report of the Committee for Constitutional Amendment was taken. Mr HALEY, introducing the report, stated that a committee under VON KARMAN had been studying the foundation of an International Academy of Astronautics and that in this connection an amendment to Article 6 of the Federation's constitution was worthy of consideration. Following an exhaustive deliberation by the council, two resolutions were adopted. The first one amending Article 6 modified the existing wording as follows:

"That an International Academy of Astronautics of the International Astronautical Federation be established, consisting of individuals who have distinguished themselves in one of the fields of astronautics or one of the branches of all sciences of fundamental importance for the exploration of space."

"That the Academy adopts its own Statutes..."

It was further resolved that a Founding Committee, to carry out the preparatory work to enable the Academy to function, should be set up under the Chairmanship of Dr Theodore VON KARMAN, who would appoint its members. The resolution also named VON KARMAN as first Director of the Academy, and stated that its initial membership should be designated by the founding committee.

This resolution finally decoupled the Academy from the hypothetical Research Institute. In reviewing the activities of the Federation, as far as they were pertinent to the foundation of the Academy, reference must be made to the publication of the Astronautica Acta. The Acta was published by Springer Verlag, Vienna, the first issue appearing in 1955. Subsequently, the title was changed to Acta Astronautica.

2 Debate and decision

At first, there was strong opposition to the creation of a new international astronautical group, which, it was thought, might diminish the function of the Federation in its role of promoting and encouraging international co-operation in astronautics. Certainly, at the Barcelona Congress the delegates would have been in no mood to consider implementing the proposal of Mr HALEY, Dr SANGER and VON KARMAN and even at Amsterdam, a year later, there were too many reservations over the matter to allow it even to be discussed by the council. The decision then, to leave it to a "Committee for Constitutional Amendment" was, in effect, a means of deferring the issue, giving time for the proponents to overcome the fears and reservations of the opponents.

The member-societies were, at the very least, reticent about the concept of an Academy of Astronautics and needed considerable persuasion to agree to its creation. The opposition, based upon fears that setting up such an institution might jeopardise the development of the Federation, was understandable. The Federation itself was still in its infancy and it seemed premature to divert attention and effort from it by establishing yet another international body having similar objectives. At the same time, many considered it pointless to set up an Academy that would be no more than a list of names of distinguished personalities without a purpose. However, any purpose of the Academy would embrace activities that could as well be carried out by the Federation itself. This was an obvious conclusion which, in the event, was borne out in the transfer of responsibility for the publication of the Astronautica Acta. Above all, the Academy would be an elite body of individuals, elected by its own membership and, consequently, not representative of the Federation's member-societies. If such a body took over a significant part of the activities, it would inevitably reduce the responsibility of the member-societies; that, arguably, would be an undemocratic situation.

Some of those closely involved in the debate had a schizophrenic attitude to the matter, on the one hand being attracted to the idea of an Academy, while on the other hand being concerned that the reservations of their respective societies were firmly expressed. In the final analysis the outcome of the debate depended upon two factors:

  1. that the member-societies were to recognise that an Academy made up of distinguished scientists and engineers would enhance the reputation of the Federation and add weight to its arguments and activities,
  2. that the Constitution of the Academy should be explicit in describing it clearly responsible to the latter's ruling council.

Acceptance of the first point naturally depended greatly upon the persuasiveness and the reputations of its proponents. Dr SANGER was a rocket pioneer of eminence recognised as such by everyone working in that field. Mr HALEY, a distinguished Washington lawyer with a strong technical background, had come to the 1951 London Congress representing the ARS and had been one of the two vice-presidents initially elected, when the Federation was founded at that meeting. He had become a dominating personality and was recognised as being without a master in his powers of persuasion. Then, of course, there was Theodore VON KARMAN, doyen of aerodynamics, scientist of world repute and arguably one of the most important figures in the evolution of rocketry in the USA towards the end of World War II. He had played a major role in GALCIT, in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology and in the founding of the Aerojet Engineering Corporation in California, where he had become closely associated with Mr HALEY and with Frank MALINA, who was also to become one of our Academy founders. VON KARMAN had come into the scene and had associated himself closely with the Federation in the ensuing years. His support of the concept of the Academy, and his readiness to become its first director, undoubtedly swung the Federation's council and member-societies round in favour of it.

By the early summer of 1959 the case for setting up the IAA had been agreed, and those representatives of the few member-societies who met with them in Paris, though, of course, the last word rested with the council. At that time there was no official bureau (it was created at the Washington Congress in 1961), but it had become the custom of the officers of the Federation to meet in Paris in the spring (in 1960 they met in Heidelberg) to review the affairs in between congresses. There was no Paris head-quarters then (the Federation was officially based at the secretary's address in Baden, Switzerland) and the spring reunions depended upon accommodation usually arranged by Frank MALINA who lived in Paris.

The 1959 reunion took place from 5-8 June and in addition to the current officers, the participants included VON KARMAN and Frank MALINA, with six of the member-societies being represented. At the meetings presided over by A.G. HALEY, it was decided to recommend to the council, at the forthcoming London Congress, a revision to the constitution providing for the establishment of an Academy of astronautics under the direction of VON KARMAN. The gathered officers and representatives also initiated, informally, a committee to select the founder membership of the Academy under VON KARMAN's chairmanship with Professor J. PERES as Vice-Chairman. This was to be formally established as the founding committee when the delegates at the London Congress adopted the resolution.

3 Toward IAA Independence

Following the act of foundation of the Academy the founding committee had as its principal tasks the appointment of its officers and initial membership, and the preparation of a draft constitution to be submitted for the approval of the Federation council when it met at the following Congress in Stockholm in 1960.

A first action by the chairman was to appoint a working partly consisting of Professor John COBB COOPER, Professor A. MEYER and Dr MALINA to draft the statutes of the Academy. These proposed statutes were to provide for the Academy to have three sections; the first in basic sciences; the second in engineering sciences, and the third in life sciences. The first and second sections would each have 60 members and 120 corresponding members, while the third would have 45 members and 90 corresponding members. The initial membership of the Academy was to consist of the members of the founding committee, whom Dr VON KARMAN had appointed, and additional members selected jointly by the founding committee; up to 20 in each of sections 1 and 2, and 15 in section 3. No corresponding member was to be elected until after the first election, which was to be held in the December following the approval of the statutes by the council. The statutes specified that both members and corresponding members should be elected for life. The principal distinction between the rights of members and corresponding members was that of the power to vote, which was accorded only to the former.

The Academy officers were to be the director and two deputy directors who with 11 trustees (4 each from sections 1 and 2, and 3 from section 1), were to make up the governing body of the Academy. It was proposed initially that this body should be termed the "Assembly".

One of the most important of the articles was the second, defining the functions of the Academy. In general, these did not seriously impinge upon the activities of the Federation itself, except for the third item, which assigned publication of the Astronautica Acta to the Academy. This was a matter that aroused considerable controversy and was only accepted by the council because the Academy was, initially, established as a constituent part of the Federation and its transactions were subject to the overriding will of the council. Some years later, Article II was to be amended with the phrase: "The Academy shall bear legal responsibility for all its actions under these Statutes".

This was to establish the IAA as a separate legal entity, independent of the IAF, except insofar as it was specified that no future statutes, or amendments thereto, should be inconsistent with the provisions of the constitution of the Federation. Once the Academy had achieved its independence, the Acta legally became its own property.

It is worth noting, nevertheless, that the draft statutes of the IAA, as submitted to the council at the Stockholm Congress, went much further in making the Academy master of its own destiny, than did those of the original VON KARMAN - SANGER - HALEY document. For example, the latter proposed that academicians should be elected by the council of the Federation. In retrospect, it is perhaps fortunate, from the standpoint of the evolution of the Academy, that it was not set up in 1957 under the terms of the articles then proposed.

The task of establishing the initial membership of the Academy was duly transacted and the 23 members of the founding committee was augmented to 45 (15 in section 1, 18 in section 2 and 12 in section 3). That the intended number of 55 was not filled was due to the continuing reservations of the USSR Academy of Sciences concerning the value and purpose of the IAA. As a result, the invitations to Soviet scientists and engineers to accept membership were declined-eight vacancies were held open in the hope and expectation that the USSR Academy would reconsider its position, which eventually it did, though not until 1964.

As with any enterprise, of course, the most important factor in determining a successful outcome to the establishment of the Academy, would be financial backing. Dr VON KARMAN addressed an appeal to the board of trustees of the Daniel and Florence GUGGENHEIM Foundation, seeking support to cover the administrative costs of the Academy over its first three years. The appeal was made to the trustees following a meeting (27 January 1960) which he had, with Harry GUGGENHEIM and Edward PENDRAY (the ARS pioneer) and, helped no doubt by this personal approach, it was successful. A sum of $75,000, to be spread over three years, was donated to the Academy by the Foundation and this, together with a separate benefit, namely, the granting of free accommodation for an office in Paris, removed all the material obstacles to the functioning of the IAA.

At the London Congress, it had been resolved that an executive headquarters of the Federation should be established in Paris. General P. BERGERON, Honorary President of the Societe Francaise d'Astronautique (SFA) which, in 1955, had replaced ANANOFF'S Groupement Astronautique Francais, undertook to find suitable accommodation for this purpose. His efforts were successful, furnished offices being made available at no charge for a period of three years at the Caisse Nationale des Marches de l'Etat. The Federation would share this accommodation with the IAA and the latter would contribute the money to administer the office out of the GUGGENHEIM grant. In this way, the Federation was to derive an immediate material benefit from the Academy. The administration of the office would be in the hands of Mr A.R. WEILLER, who, on one year's official leave of absence from the French Meteorologie Nationale, was to act as secretary to the Academy. Finally, in the early days of 1960, the Academy took over the management and editing of the Astronautica Acta. Publication remained with Springer Verlag of Vienna and was to continue so until 1966 when it was transferred to Pergamon Press.

The considerable progress made in the first few months of the IAA was reported when the officers of the Federation and the representatives of the Academy met at the end of May in Heidelberg. At this meeting, the proposed statutes were reviewed and seen to be ready for submission to the council when it met in plenary session at the forthcoming Congress.

The 11th International Astronautical Congress was held in Stockholm in mid-August 1960 under the Presidency of USSR Academician Leonid I. SEDOV. At the first plenary session on 15 August, the President invited Theodore VON KARMAN to report upon the status of the Academy, which he did. Academician SEDOV then went on to report upon the agreement that had been reached at Heidelberg on the proposed statutes and terms of reference of the Academy. However, he had to report that, at that juncture, the Soviet representatives, following discussions in the USSR Academy of Sciences, did not consider it expedient to participate in the IAA.

Leonid SEDOV then, with consummate skill, and properly wearing his Federation hat, steered the Academy statutes and Dr VON KARMAN's report, safely to council approval (nem. con.) and the Academy was in business!

Article VI of the statutes provided for the Academy holding a "Regular Meeting" once in every two years the first such meeting to be held at the next Congress after the approval of the constitution. Accordingly, the first regular meeting of the Academy would not take place until the following year at the Washington Congress. However, it was desirable, if not essential, that advantage be taken of the high level of attendance of founder members of the Academy (25 out of 45) so a special meeting was convened on 16 August at which the members were joined by the IAA acting secretary.

At this meeting, in his capacity as chairman of the founding committee, VON KARMAN reported on the actions that had been taken to set up the Academy and the members were then asked to approve the appointment of its officers. Dr VON KARMAN had already been designated as Director of the Academy. The meeting went on to approve the appointment of Dr F.J. MALINA and Professor J. PERES (Dean on the Faculty of Sciences at the Sorbonne), as deputy directors and also the chairmen of the three sections; Professor EHMERT (1); Professor PESEK (2) and Professor FLORKIN (3). Mr A.R. WEILLER was confirmed as acting secretary for the first year and given the responsibility of organising the Paris headquarters.

The meeting went on to appoint a number of standing committees; to prepare for the election of further members and to consider the role of the Academy in future congresses. In this last connection, it was accepted that the organisation of the programmes of the congresses must remain the responsibility of the Federation, but the Academy should be willing to sponsor specific symposia within the framework of a given congress. This has been the basis of subsequent Academy participation in congress programmes. At this special meeting of the Academy, a decision was taken to begin planning a first independent symposium to be held outside the aegis of the Federation. Thus, at the end of the first year following its foundation, the Academy became a functioning body, firmly embarked upon a course of activities that it was to follow purposefully in the ensuing years.


In December 1960, a further 30 members were elected to the Academy as well as its first honorary member, Niels BOHR.

The officers of the Academy held their first meeting in Paris in March 1961. In that year, the Federation formally inaugurated the bureau, whose membership, in addition to the president, vice-president, honorary secretary and general counsel, was to include the immediate past president, the director of the Academy and the president of the International Institute of Space Law. The pattern for the future management of the Federation, involving the IAA and IISL, was thus established. The annual spring meeting of the bureau provided an opportunity for the Academy officers and its principal committees to meet also, so that their meetings could be held twice yearly thereafter.

June 1961 saw the first of the independent symposia that were to be organised by the IAA. This symposium, on "Space Flight and Re-entry Trajectories", was held at Louvecienne, near Paris. It was to be the first of many symposia organised by the Academy outside the auspices of the Congress. Many of these were jointly sponsored meetings run in collaboration with other international organisations. In 1961, also, the first award of the Academy was made-the Daniel and Florence GUGGENHEIM International Astronautics Award of US$1000. This award was to be given annually, the funds for the first three years coming out of the $75,000 received from the GUGGENHEIM Foundation. Subsequently, the Foundation continued for some time to make an annual contribution for the award. The first recipient was Sir Bernard LOVELL.

The first regular meeting of the Academy was held in Washington on 3 October 1961, when the director was able to report very considerable progress in the development of its affairs since Stockholm. Sadly, this was to be the only regular meeting presided over by VON KARMAN. In the second election, in December 1961, the membership of the Academy was increased to 116 and in the following June the first corresponding members, 23 in number, were admitted. Professor PERES died on 12 February 1962 and Professor U.S. VON EULER, of Sweden, was appointed to succeed him as deputy director.

When his one year's leave of absence ended, Mr WEILLER had to relinquish his duties as acting secretary of the Academy and a gap was created in the administration of the IAA office. The situation became exacerbated by the fact that the person appointed to take his place was prevented by ill health from functioning effectively and he too had to give up the post. The third secretary to the Academy, who also filled the post of executive secretary of the Federation was Dr W.F. HILTON, but he too only remained with the Academy and Federation for about a year. These offices were then taken over by Helene VAN GELDER, who had been administrative assistant, and she was to hold office for some twenty years until her retirement. The situation in the matter of IAA and the Federation office accommodation followed a similar course, for the arrangement with the Caisse Nationale des Marchés de l'Etat ran out after the agreed three years. The Société Française d'Astronautique found temporary accommodation for the Academy and Federation on the Rue 4 Septembre and, later in the year, at 250 Rue Saint-Jacques-an ancient and historic street- where stability was restored and a degree of permanancy established.

There was no regular meeting of the Academy, during the 8th International Astronautical Congress at Varna, but the IAA Assembly met there on 25 September 1962. One of the matters raised was a proposal to amend the Academy statutes so that the assembly was to become the "Board of Trustees", with a quorum reduced to 5 members, and the titles of director and deputy director dropped in favour of president and vice-president, respectively. The proposed constitutional amendment was to be put before the second regular meeting of the Academy in Paris in 1963 for its approval. A preoccupation of the assembly at the Varna meeting was the question of finance. The ensuing year would be the last period of the grant from the GUGGENHEIM Foundation and, thereafter, the Academy would have to look around for further sources of revenue. An important step had been taken in the United States to set up the Astronautics Foundation Inc., which would allow Americans to make tax-exempt contributions for international collaboration in astronautics. This organisation, which later became the Theodore VON KARMAN Memorial Foundation, was to be an important contributor to the finances of the IAA, though not at the level of the GUGGENHEIM Foundation.

The Academy elections of December 1962 saw the strength raised to 133 members, with those elected coming from the newly formed corresponding membership, so that the number of the latter was depleted to 5. Honorary membership was conferred upon Louis de BROGLIE, Jacqueline COCHRAN and Harry F. GUGGENHEIM, but Niels BOHR, the only prior honorary member, had died in November 1962.

At the end of October 1962, the Academy, jointly with the IAF, UNESCO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organisation sponsored a major 5-day symposium -"Basic Environmental Problems of Man in Space"- at UNESCO House in Paris. The chairman of this meeting, at which 31 papers were presented, was H.A. BJURSTEDT. It was the first major symposium organised by the Academy outside the Congress framework.

On 7 May 1963, Theodore VON KARMAN died and the first chapter in the history of the Academy was closed. Frank MALINA was designated by the trustees to succeed him as director for the remainder of the academy year, and he presided over the second regular meeting of the IAA on 28 in Paris. At the meeting, the amendments to the statutes that had been recommended at Varna were adopted.

Franck MALINA did not choose to stand for election as President of the Academy, but agreed to be elected to the renamed board of trustees, in section 2. In this way, his unique experience and knowledge of the Academy remained at the disposal of the incoming president.

Dr Charles STARK DRAPER was elected by the Academy members to be their new president, a post which he was to hold for twenty years until he handed over to our current president. In the same election, Professor VON EULER was elected as one of the vice-presidents -in his case a simple change of title- and he was joined by Professor E.A. BRUN who was elected to the vacancy that had been left five months earlier by Frank MALINA.

Charles STARK DRAPER was an excellent choice to succeed VON KARMAN for, being no less distinguished in his own field, he was able to maintain the illustrious tone of the leadership of the Academy, which was essential to ensure its survival as a serious international scientific institution. In his first year he was to have the satisfaction, denied to his predecessor, of welcoming soviet scientists and engineers to the membership of the IAA, thus closing the gap in its international make-up that had existed from the time of its foundation.

Tribute, however, must be paid to the man who first led the Academy. There can be little doubt that it would not have been founded without the whole hearted participation of Theodore VON KARMAN. Its acceptance by the space-societies rested, above all, on his reputation as a scientist of the highest international standing. Moreover, when it came to the vital matter of financial backing he was able to approach Harry GUGGENHEIM as an old friend and convince him of the value of the Academy in the developing space age. He was no remote academic, but a man of the world with a strong personality and a great sense of humour. Above all, he was as confident in dealing with the men of commerce and politics as with his scientific colleagues.

Behind VON KARMAN, however, in the affairs of the Academy, it is important to recognise the determination of Andrew G. HALEY and the devotion of Frank MALINA. Probably, VON KARMAN's early interest in the Federation was stimulated by G. HALEY, and the persistance of the latter in promoting the idea of the Academy, was crucial in pursuading the representatives of the member-societies to respond positively in founding the IAA before he handed over to his successor. In the years immediately leading up to and following the founding of the Academy, MALINA worked unstintingly in the cause, sometimes in the rather humble capacity of "legman" to Andy HALEY, but mostly in an important role, relieving "the Boss" (VON KARMAN) of the tiresome but essential details involved in the actual management of the Academy. There can be no doubt about the considerable value of the support that VON KARMAN got from MALINA in ensuring that the Academy was built on a sound base.

Building the Organisation: Structure, Programmes & Activities

1 Awards

Two principal IAA Awards were established during the first two and a half decades of the Academy's existence, the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim  International Astronautics Award that was given annually from 1961 to 1978 and the Theodore Von Karman Award that was created in 1983 and continues to the present.

Daniel and Florence Guggenheim International Astronautical Award

The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim International Astronautics award provided a grant of US $75,000 to the Academy in 1960 for start-up activities during its first 3 years of operations. Among other uses, this grant allowed the Academy to establish an award to honor persons making noteworthy contributions to the emerging discipline of astronautics. In 1961, an Award and Fellowship Committee was set up to select candidates for the award; its membership consisted of Theodore Von Karman, chairman; E.A. Brun, vice-chairman; and six members (W. Von Braun, L. Broglio, A.V. Cleaver, J.M.J. Kooy, W.R. Lovelace And M. Nicolet).

The Academy, through this committee, not only handled procedures for selecting candidates for what became the annual Daniel and Florence Guggenheim International Astronautics award, but made it possible to continue bestowing it for a period of 18 years -long after the original grant had been expended. The Guggenheim award was accompanied by a stipend of US $1,000. The procedures called for candidates to be nominated by the Academy membership and the recipient for a given year to be determined by a vote of the Award and Fellowship Committee.

In 1961, Sir Bernard Lovell, Director of the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station at the University of Manchester, England, received the first award for his contributions in tracking Earth satellites and other spacecraft and in carrying out pioneering studies in radio astronomy. The award was presented at the 12th International Astronautical Congress in Washington in early October of that year.

James A. Van Allen, the second recipient, received the award at the 13th Congress in Varna, Bulgaria, in September 1962. He was honored as the discoverer of what had become widely known as the Van Allen Radiation Belts that encircle the Earth. Table 1 lists the recipients of the award during the 18-year period of its existence.

The list of recipients of the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim from 1961 to 1978 is as follows:

1961 A.C. Lovell, UK
1962 James A. Van Allen, USA
1963 Marcel Nicollet, Belgium
1964 Wallace O. Fenn, USA
1965 Mstislav V. Keldysh, USSR
1966 Robert R. Gilruth, USA
1967 Jacques E. Blamont, France
1968 Zdenek Svestka, Czech.
1969 Charles A. Berry, USA
1970 Andrian Nikolayev and Vitali I. Sevastianov, USSR
1971 Luigi Broglio, Italy
1972 Reimar Luest, Germany
1973 Maxime A. Faget, USA
1974 Hilding A. Bjurstedt, Sweden
1975 Oleg G. Gazenko, USSR
1976 Marcel Barrère, France
1977 Leonid I. Sedov, USSR
1978 Christopher C. Kraft, Jr, USA

The award came to an end because the Guggenheim Foundation did not provide enough money for the Academy to continue giving recipients US $1,000 a year. Unfortunately, the Academy was not in a position itself to bear the annual cost of the award.

The Theodore Von Karman Award

In March 1982, Eilene Galloway, President of the Theodore Von Karman Memorial Foundation, Inc appointed George Mueller to chair an ad hoc committee of the Foundation to look into the establishment of an award that would perpetuate the memory and accomplishments of Von Karman. Chosen to serve on that Committee were trustees Robert A. Duffy, Michael Collins, Allen E. Puckett And Martin Summerfield.

The Committee recommended that the Foundation establish an award in the name of Theodore Von Karman in honour of the 100th anniversary of his birth; and, moreover, that is should be given annually to an individual who had made significant and lasting lifetime contributions to international cooperation and the peaceful uses of outer space. The Foundation proposed that the International Academy of Astronautics' board of trustees recommend candidates for the award to the Foundation's board, which would then make the final selection from among individuals put forward by both boards. During the course of an April 1983 meeting in Paris, the IAA board of trustees accepted this proposal. The award consists of a framed certificate honouring the recipient for outstanding contributions in the field of astronautics.

Three awards were made from 1983 to 1985. The first was given to Charles Stark Draper in 1983 in Budapest, Hungary. He had been president of the IAA for many years and had also served as the Foundation's chairman of the board. The second recipient was Alexei Stanislavovich Yeliseyev, a former cosmonaut and leading space scientist in the soviet Union's Intercosmos program. This award was presented in Lausanne, Switzerland in October 1984.

The Theodore Von Karman Memorial Foundation, Inc., a United States organisation founded to honour the man for his outstanding work in aeronautics and astronautics, was not endowed. By the end of 1984, it had become apparent that sufficient funds to continue would not be available from gifts and donations. Consequently, the board of trustees voted to dissolve the Foundation and it went out of existence in the spring of 1985.

As that time the IAA, which had been founded under Von Karman a quarter of a century earlier, decided to grant an annual award also named for him. The first Academy-sponsored Von Karman award, which consists of a certificate, was given in October 1985 in Stockholm. The recipient was Reimar Lust, director general of the European Space Agency. The award cited his sustained contributions to the advancement of space science and technology and the peaceful uses of outer space.

Section and Book awards

In addition to the two above awards, a new series was inaugurated in 1985; the IAA Section award and the IAA Book award. Two awards in the former series were given in 1985, one to Ashton Graybiel and the other to Vladimir Kopal. At the same time, an award was given posthumously to Eugene M. Emme, former chief historian of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and active in IAA history affairs. The certificate was given to Mrs Ruth Emme in Washington, DC.


2 The Committees

The International Academy of Astronautics got its start as the result of the establishment of a committee-the Founding Committee. It resulted from a resolution of the International Astronautical Federation passed in London on 2 September 1959. This Committee was, in fact, the nucleus of an institution yet to be born. The resolution state, in part, "That the preparatory work leading up to the functioning of the Academy be carried out by a Founding Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr Th. Von Karman, who is hereby empowered to choose appropriate members of the Committee," and "that the Founding Committee designate an appropriate initial membership of the Academy which would permit the Academy to commence its work under the initial Directorship of Dr Th. Von Karman".

On 16 August 1960, the report of the Chairman of the Founding Committee was released. In it, Theodore Von Karman noted: "I believe that my feeling of reluctance toward the creation of a great number of committees is shared by the members of the Academy. Nevertheless, in order to further the work of the Academy a certain number of committees is necessary." The initial ones he felt to be justified were three in number: Publications Committee, Academy Awards and Fellowship Committee, and Finance Committee (called for by the statutes). He added that: "It may be desirable to appoint other committees [during the course of 1960]."

As it turned out, the first committees to come into existence were the Lunar International Laboratory Committee, the Publications Committee, and the predecessor of today's Scientific Legal Liaison Committee.

Other committees were established rather early in the evolution of the Academy and began to hold symposia. Examples were those that dealt with the history of rocketry and astronautics and with space relativity. Still other committees only got under way after a number of symposia in their subject areas had already been held, an example being the Committee on Communications with Extraterrestrial Intelligence. It had earlier held meetings run by an organising group that formed the nucleus of the later committee.

Thus, we find meetings being organised and run by:

- established committees or,

- groups appointed specifically of the purpose.

Some of the early committees have continued on to the present, while others faded away and were eventually dissolved. Thus, Malina's Lunar International Laboratory Committee (later to become the Manned Research on Celestial Bodies Committee) as well as the Orbital International Laboratory Committee, came to an end after a period of years.

In terms of types of committees, two have evolved over the years. One deals with the administrative and business aspects of Academy operations, and the other with the scientific and technical side. The latter act principally to organise symposia and colloquia.

In 1983, the Academy's committee structure was reorganised and four standing committees were established:

- Scientific Programmes,

- awards and Membership,

- publications and,

- finance.

Each was chaired by a vice-president, who was also a member thereby of the Academy's board of trustees.

The aim of the reorganisation was to permit the committees of the Academy to focus on relatively broad areas of enquiry while those of the Federation would deal with such discrete functional areas as bioastronautics and propulsion. It was particularly desired to avoid duplication between the Academy, the Federation, and the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unions, yet at the same time not disturb the more productive existing committees. On 11 October 1984 in Lausanne, Switzerland, the new committee structure was unanimously adopted by the board of trustees and became incorporated into the Academy's bylaws.

During the course of eighties, the IAA has organised an average of eight scientific meetings, some held within the framework of the annual international astronautical congresses and some at other places and times. Most were organised by existing IAA committees.

The first meeting of any type was held at Louveciennes near Paris on 19-21 June 1961: "The International Symposium on Space Flight and Re-entry Trajectories." Consisting of five sessions, it was organised by P.A. Libby and a six-man committee with members from as many nations.

The second meeting was held in UNESCO House, Paris from 20 October to 2 November 1962 and was entitled the "First International Symposium on Basic Environmental Problems of Man in Space." H.A. Bjurstedt was chairman of the organising committee, with W.R. Lovelace II and N.M. Sissakian serving as vice-chairmen. The meeting was organised by the Academy with support coming from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the world Health Organisation.

From time to time over the years, a number of temporary and ad hoc committees were recommended. Thus, in October 1961, an Astrobiology Committee was proposed. Approval was not forthcoming, however, because the Federation already had an ad hoc Committee on Life Sciences (later, Bioastronautics Committee). Subsequently, the both organizations began to hold joint meetings on the life science at the time of the Annual Astronautical Congress sciences.

In 1977-78, a temporary Energy and Space Committee was approved by the Board under Luigi Napolitano's chairmanship. Its object: to study ways in which space technology could aid in finding solutions to energy problems on Earth. The Committee remained in a semi-active state for a number of years. Then, in Paris on 28 September 1982, it and the Federation's Working Group on Energy and Space Energy and Power met to decide their perspective programmes. This led to the merger of the IAA committee into that of the Federation.

There were also temporary committees set up to deal with such topics as publications. Brief summaries of the Academy's committees follow, first those of an administrative nature followed by those dealing with the scientific and technical affairs to which the organisation is dedicated.

Administrative Committees

The Finance Committee was established in 1961 with a chairman, J. Peres and two members, A. Eula and A. Meyer. The following year, the workings of the committee were assessed by Frank J. Malina, chairman and members A. Ehmert and J.M.J. Kooy.

Another administrative committee set up fairly early in the Academy's history was the Advisory Committee on Support of the Academy. From its inception in 1967 to its demise in 1971, the committee provided advice to the president on ways and means of securing steady financial support for the Academy.

Scientific Committees

The Scientific Committees structure has been terminated in October 2001 in Toulouse, France. Several kinds of Scientific Committees have been established over the years by the Academy that deal with basic sciences, engineering sciences, life sciences, and social sciences. Many are interdisciplinary in nature. It should be noted that not all the committees described briefly below remained in existence during all or even much of the Academy's history. Some simply came to an end, some were merged into present-day committees, and others were not established until quite recently.

Space Relativity

This committee was approved in October 1961. Arrangements were made that it would cooperate closely with COSPAR and efforts it was taking to use astronautics to verify the general theory of relativity. Von Karman named the chairman and members at end of 1962, and the following year it began to operate.

The Space Relativity Committee almost immediately started planning for its first meeting, which was held in October 1963. In October 1973, the "First International Symposium on the Effects of Relativity in Present-day Space Travel" was held in Baku, USSR. The conference was organised under the leadership of W. Wrigley, V.V. Braginsky and P.K. Chapman.

In 1983, Space Relativity was merged into the new Space Science Studies Committee.

Gasdynamics of Explosions of Reactive Systems

The "First International Colloquium on Gasdynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems" took place in Brussels in September 1967 under the chairmanship of A.K. Oppenheim and R.I. Soloukhin. Two years later, A.K. Oppenheim proposed that a Committee on Gasdynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems be established. It was duly approved on 20 March 1969, and met for the first time in Mar del Plata, Argentina.

The Committee was dissolved in 1980 following the termination of its activity with the sixth international colloquium on the subject.

Communications with Extraterrestrial Intelligence

The subject was introduced to the IAA by Rudolf Pesek in 1966. The "First International Review Session on CETI" took place in 1972 in Vienna, Austria. Papers presented there were published in December of the following year in the Astronautica Acta. Baku was the site of the second review session in 1973 under Rudolf Pesek and N.S. Kardashev. Subsequently, CETI reviews have been regular features of IAA meetings.

This committee was established in 1974 under Rudolf Pesek's chairmanship; and, in 1981, John Billingham became co-chairman. In 1979, Volume 6 of the Acta Astronautica was devoted entirely to CETI. In its preface, Rudolf Pesek proposed "... to continue organising international CETI review meetings, to invite scientists to suggest experiments concerning CETI, [and] to coordinate CETI national meetings...". In 1982, nine members of the CETI Committee participated in the preparation of a paper on SETI for Unispace 82, and this was published in The World in Space volume that resulted from that United Nations conference.

NOTE - SETI refers to Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

International SETI review meetings have been held every year since 1972.

Economics and Benefits of Space Activities

The Committee on Cost Reduction in Space Operations was created in March 1969 under Bernard Haber. The first symposium on the subject was held in Brussels in September 1971 under the chairmanship of P.A. Campbell and P.H. Bolger. At the time of the Academy's 25th anniversary in stockholm in October 1985, this committee held its "15th Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits".

The committee continues to follow its charter, namely to consider the socio-economic benefits to mankind as a result of space activity from the international point of view, and also to consider issues associated with the high cost of space activity and possible ways of undertaking them on a more economical basis.

A 5-year plan, presented by chairman D.E. Koelle in 1985, recommended that three areas be emphasised, the first two traditional and the third new:

- cost effectiveness in space operations, especially in the areas of space transportation and communications; commercialisation and industrial activities in space and,

- utilisation of Solar System resources.

Man in Space Studies

On 7 February 1962, Frank Malina advised that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organisation had joined UNESCO in giving support and cooperation to the IAA in organising the "First International Symposium on Basic Environmental Problems on Man in Space," and, furthermore, that the Soviet Academy of Sciences had agreed to participate. As noted earlier, that symposium was subsequently held that autumn in Paris under H.A. Bjurstedt's chairmanship. Other such meetings were held in 1965 and 1968.

In March 1969, the Man in Space Studies Committee was approved and plans were made to organise more symposia. Its purpose is to pursue activities in the life sciences as they pertain to man in space, including physiological and psychological factors; space hazards and protection; life support; man-machine interfaces; and simulators and training devices.

Manned Research on Celestial Bodies

This committee started life as the Lunar International Laboratory Committee, one of the Academy's oldest and the special concern of Frank Malina. LIL held its first meeting in Washington, D.C., on 4 October 1961.

As early as 1962-shortly after LIL's formation- member Huburtus Strughold had proposed a conference on a Martian International Laboratory, a subject of great personal interest. But it would have to wait; for the time being, at least, the Moon would dominate discussions. On 16 September 1965 in Athens the "First Lunar International Laboratory Symposium: Research in Geosciences and Astronomy" was held.

In New York in October 1968, it was decided to change LIL's name to MAnned REsearch on CElestial BOdies (MARECEBO) to reflect the broadening interest of members. Then, in the 1976-1977 period, the MARECEBO Committee began to consider a symposium dealing with a manned Martian International Laboratory, which had earlier been proposed by Huburtus Strughold. One of the incentives for the symposium was provided by the unmanned VIKING Mars orbiter and landing programme that was then unfolding; and, in any event, a formal conference seemed a logical follow-up of the "First Martian International Laboratory Discussion Panel" that had been held in October 1973 in Baku organised by Huburtus Strughold and Y.I. Moroz.

As it turned out, this symposium never took place; and in fact, MARECEBO suspended all its meetings "until [in the committee's words] plans for future activities have been formulated". In November 1979, because of the dormancy of the committee, Academy President Draper proposed its suspension "until it was ready to resume studies in this area." Some of MARECEBO concerns were later incorporated into the Interstellar Space Exploration Committee, which was formed in 1983.

Orbital International Laboratory

Proposed by John P. Stapp, this committee was approved on 1 September 1965. The first symposium on the subject was held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia on 25 September 1967 and, appropriately, was organised under his direction.

An "Orbital International Laboratory Panel" chaired by Ernst A. Steinhoff in Baku on 11 October 1973 concluded a series of symposia on the subject that had been held over the years. The committee rounded up its activities with the panel discussion; and, in 1974 was dissolved because of lack of activity.

Space Safety and Rescue

The Space Rescue Studies Committee was approved in 1967 following a proposal by Paul A. Campbell in September 1961. New York City was the site of the "First International Space Rescue Symposium", which took place on 14 October 1968 under Campbell's leadership.

The purpose of the committee, whose membership is listed in Table 16, is to study ways to achieve optimum safety performance and provision of rescue capabilities. As problems require international communications and cooperative efforts, the committee's international scope and viewpoint and interdisciplinary nature makes it particularly effective. The long-range identification of safety challenges illuminates future space design/operating protocols and suggests areas requiring further investigation across the spectrum of the Academy's technical purviews.

The growing potential of satellite technology to improve preparation for natural disasters and emergency response to Earth distress situations was reflected in the committee's forming a subcommittee in 1977 to address Earth safety and disaster/distress response employing space-based systems.

Scientific Legal Liaison

A committee for Liaison with the International Institute of Space Law (IISL) was established in October 1962 under the initiative of the late John Cobb Cooper to replace the old Joint IAA-ISSL Commission (1960-1962), which had played this role during those years. Later, the committee took its present title Scientific Legal Liaison Committee.

The purpose of the committee is to study the interaction of scientific and legal questions resulting from space activities. Membership from all sections of the Academy and from the IISL, as well as the co-operation of non-members, having interest in multidisciplinary approach to general problems of astronautics, are welcome.

Despite and impressive number of specialists who demonstrated their interest in the mandate of the committee during different periods of its existence, achieving the purpose eluded the members for several years. By 1975, the President of the Academy felt it necessary to observe that "Reports I have received from the Committee at different times indicate that an effective dialogue between scientists and lawyers, which is one of the main purposes of the Committee, has not as yet been achieved". This led to a reorganization of the committee and regular reviewing of its membership.

Since then, the committee became more effective, and is the only international body in which scientific, technological and legal experts get together on a non-governmental level to consider selected topics of the present or prospective space activities that are of their common concern.

During the years, the committee has held many sessions traditionally called roundtables. The first two roundtables were held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1967 and New York, USA in 1968, in which a definition of outer space in the light of relevant scientific factors was discussed. Later, roundtables dealt with space activities that might have harmful effects on the environment, legal problems likely to arise from space station operations, scientific and legal aspects of remote sensing, large systems in space and energy from outer space. Most recently, a roundtable on "Present and Expected Uses of Outer Space and Problems of Protecting the Space Environment" was held in Lausanne, 1984 and another such meeting, dealting with "Legal and Technical Implications of Space Stations" occurred in Stockholm, 1985. These latter roundtables were chaired by Manfred Lachs of Poland (Judge and formerly President of the International Court of Justice) and organized by Pierre Contensou of France and Vladimir Kopal of Czechoslovakia as co-chairmen of the committee.

During these meetings the format of Scientific-Legal Roundtables developed, consisting of a limited number of invited papers and discussions focused on definite points. Proceedings of roundtables have been regularly published as special agenda in the volumes of IISL proceedings; and, in the case of the roundtable on "Energy from Outer Space", also in a book form printed in English and Spanish under the sponsorship of the Consejo de Estudios Internacionales Avanzados, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

History of Astronautics

The predecessor Committee on the History of the Development of Rockets and Astronautics was established in 1961 and held its first meeting under Charles DOLLFUS' chairmanship in Paris at UNESCO on 27 September 1963. Subsequently, the committee prospered under the guidance of the late Eugene M. Emme, V.N. Sokolsky and Frederick C. Durant III.

The "First International History of Astronautics Symposium" was held on 26 September 1967 in Belgrade. Devoted to pre-1939 memoirs of pioneers in astronautics and rocketry, it was organized under Dollfus' direction. The second symposium was held the following year in New York under the chairmanship of F. Durant and featured new contributions to the historical literature on rocket technology and astronautics for the period 1900 to 1939.

Over the years, sessions were organized by Eugene M. Emme, R. Cargill Hall, V.N. Sokolsky, F. Durant and others. At the time of the IAA's 25th anniversary in Stockholm, the committee held its 19th symposium plus a session at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on the history of the IAA itself.

The early proceedings of the history symposia have been published, and arrangements have been made for the later ones also to appear.

Space and Global Change

Created in 1985 as the Global Habitability Committee, later the same year the name Committee on Space and Global Change was approved. The committee was established to study the interrelationships of all factors that affect mankind's existence on Earth, with emphasis on the use of space science and technology. Specifically, Space and Global Change would recognise the great importance of studying Earth as a system, determine the role of space technology and space systems in the effort, and promote the exchange of interdisciplinary scientific and technical information on Earth system science.

Two symposia were held, one in 1984 in Lausanne (before the committee was established), and one in Stockholm the following year.

Interstellar Space Exploration

Another committee, Interstellar Space Exploration was formed as part of the reorganisation of the Academy's committee structure in 1983, and incorporates some of the concerns of the former MARECEBO (see above). Its charge is to study issues associated with the manned and unmanned exploration of interstellar space.

At the first committee meeting on 9 October 1984 in Lausanne, chairman Leslie R. Shepherd proposed that the committee emphasizes the technological aspects of interstellar exploration, taking into account all possible interpretations that might be placed upon it. This would cover manned and unmanned exploration over a wide range of velocities from near-luminal to those presently possible. The "First Interstellar Space Flight Symposium" was held in Stockholm, October 1985.

Space Science Studies

Still another committee, Space Science Studies was formed in 1983 as part of the Academy reorganisation. It incorporates the activities of the Space Relativity Committee. Space Science Studies' charter is to examine the basic sciences as they pertain to the planets, moons, asteroids, comets, meteors, and space environment as well as space physics, astrogeology and astrobiology. It has three subcommittees responsible for astronomy; space physics and the interplanetary environment; and astrogeology.

Future Space Systems Evolution

Also set up during the Academy committee reorganisation of 1983, for a year it was known as the Space Vehicle Development committee. Future Space Systems Evolution reviews trends of space systems and their elements in order to evaluate their future evolution. The principal systems of interest to the committee are launchers and return systems, orbital propulsion systems, space stations and space bases, communication satellites and platforms, remote sensing systems, astronomical and interplanetary spacecraft, and operational facilities and equipment.

The intention of the Future Space Systems Committee is to organise symposia at least every two years on one or several of the topics noted above.

Scientific Program Committee

The coordination of activities of all committees active commencing in 1983 is undertaken by the Scientific Program Committee. It was organised under the chairmanship of Jerry GREY; and, beginning in 1985, was directed by M.I. Yarymovych.


3 Publications

The Academy's publications activities have routinely been supervised by the Publications Committee, which was established in 1960. However, as we shall see below, some aspects of publications have from time to time been handled by special groups. Publications responsibilities have included the Astronautica Acta (later, Acta Astronautica), the Multilingual Dictionary, Academy Monographs in Astronautics and the Annual Chronology of Astronautical Events.

The Academy Journal

The Astronautica Acta first appeared in 1955 under Friedrich Hecht's editorship; and by 1961, had over 1000 subscribers, mostly libraries of institutes and educational organisations, government agencies and industrial laboratories. There were relatively few individual subscribers, a fact that has long concerned the Academy.

Five years later, in 1966, Martin Summerfield took over as editor. Then, at the end of 1973 when his 7-year contract expired, Martin Summerfield turned over the editorship to A.K. Oppenheim. Shortly afterward, A.K. Oppenheim proposed to the board of trustees of the Academy that the name of the journal be changed to Acta Astronautica (for the sake of proper grammar). The board approved the change; and, at the same time, the format was modified.

The original Acta had been published by Springer Verlag in Vienna. When its contract with the Academy expired in 1966, Pergamon Press in London was approached and subsequently started publishing the journal. It was felt that Pergamon would promote the Acta more aggressively, hopefully increasing badly needed circulation.

In late 1977, an Ad Hoc Committee of Board Members was designated "to make a study of all the policies and production of the journal [Acta Astronautica]". At the time, pleasure was expressed at the improvement in publication schedule, the move towards diversification of contents of the journal, and the effort of the editor to publish more Academy proceedings-the committee was particularly anxious to encourage greater involvement of members in the production of the journal.

A year later, on 1 October 1978, A.K. Oppenheim resigned his editorship. What happened then is described in the Academy's Annual Report of August 1979: "A radical change has been made in the editorial structure of the journal... Starting with Vol. 6 (1979), responsibility for publication was delegated to an Acta Astronautica Trustees Committee composed of L.G. Napolitano (chairman), M. Barrere and A. Jaumotte." The Annual Report went on to observe that "The intention of the AATC to develop the Acta as a real journal of the Academy transactions has been approved and efforts to achieve this objective will begin with Vol. 7." Clearly, it was hoped that the new orientation would provide closer contacts with the Academy and lead to an increasing number of subscribers.

A persistent dilemma facing editors of the Acta was just what the journal was supposed to accomplish and who it was supposed to serve. Should it be a broadly based review structured to appeal to a wide audience? If so, could it still be considered a worldclass scientific-technical publication? Or should it be to help in this direction by urging libraries and other multiple-users in their localities to subscribe to the journal.

The circulation of the journal, the Acta Astronautica Trustees Committee summed up, might be expected to grow in proportion to the increased interest that its broader scope would create among potential readers.

For several years, the AATC supervised journal policy and activities. Then, in 1983, the Publications Committee was re-established to again take over responsibility for all Academy publications.

The Multilingual Dictionary

A project to develop a dictionary of astronautical terms in many languages started out very early. The first edition was published in Prague in 1970 under the title Astronautical Multilingual Dictionnary; and, within a year, was out of print. The rights to the original manuscript were obtained in 1972 from Glauco PARTEL for US $500 along with his services as co-editor.

An ad hoc Committee on Dictionaries and Encyclopedias had been established in 1969 and had held its first meeting that year in Mar del Plata; Argentina. Present at the meeting were R. Pesek, chairman, committee members L. Blosset and W.A. Heflin and observers W. Buedeler, S. Herrick, G. Partel and A. Perez-Marin. At the meeting, it was decided to recommend to the Academy that principal emphasis be given to an expanded dictionary that would not only contain definitions but would include a limited amount of encyclopaedic information. The committee spent considerable time in pondering the problem of financing its project.

After publication of the dictionary, the committee continued to meet for several years until by the late 1970s it had become dormant.

In 1983, as a result of a petition of the Academy's membership, the Development of Multilingual Dictionary Committee was re-established to produce an updated multilingual dictionary of astronautical terms. The Academy complied, stating that "Together with the Publications Committee of the Academy, the Committee shall publish the dictionary and make it available for sale to the membership. The terms of the Committee shall be five years from its establishment".

This committee, whose members are listed in Table 25, again failed to take any action and was about to be disbanded in 1985 when, through the initiative of Jean-Michel Contant, Secretary General of the Academy, he proposed to establish a database of aerospace terms in multiple languages. The matter was put to the IAA Board to review the question of undertaking such a endeavour and was a duly voted.


4 World Forum

In December 1981, IAA President George E. Mueller described a new series of meetings to be held within what he called the IAA World Forum programme. The plan was to organise three-day meetings combining plenary sessions and workshops. The format was to be such as to encourage audience interaction with the speakers and other experts in attendance. It was proposed that each year the same forum would be held twice, once in the western hemisphere and once in the eastern. The concept was adopted by the board of trustees meeting in Paris in October 1982.

As work began towards organising the proposed programme, it was realised that in addition to being intellectually stimulating, the topic of each forum should be marketable. But theory did not stand up to reality: the Academy's first planned forum "An Assessment of the Effectiveness of UNISPACE 1982..." to be held in Montreal did not prove appealing to the membership and was subsequently cancellled.

The Academy then had to consider what might be marketable as well as intellectually stimulating. Clearly, an assessment of the results of the 1982 UNISPACE conference, sponsored by the United Nations in August 1982 in Vienna, was not. The question of what subjects would be appropriate for the Academy to arrange and what form the resultant fora should take was taken up at the Academy's regular meeting in Budapest in October 1983.

The following ground rules were established for organising IAA World Fora:

the subjects chosen should not be those properly within the purview of other international organizations that is, the principal thrust of the IAA Word Fora should be to explore the effects and implications of aerospace science and technology on mankind rather than to present advancements in scientific and technical knowledge as done at regular Academy symposia,

in order to encourage a meaningful discussion, attendance should be limited to approximately 75 to 100 individuals,

much as the Academy needs income, assuring the high quality of the World Forum Programme must prevail over any temptation to dilute its content.

At Budapest, Luigi Napolitano moved that members endorse the idea of the World Forum by vote and that vice president of scientific programmes Jerry Grey be given the responsibility to formulate and implement the IAA World Forum Programme in accordance with the previous experiences of the Academy and the guidance from the membership offered at the Budapest meeting.

The motion was approved. Jerry Grey noted that before proceeding with the organisation of any future IAA World Forum, he would circulate to the Academy membership a summary of the proposed technical programme, together with its rationale, participants, location, and budget.

Subsequent to this, there were no responses from anyone within the International Academy of Astronautics. The Scientific Programmes Committee kept the World Forum on its agenda for two more years and then, dropped it as an action item in April 1985.

Evolution of the Statutes & Membership of the IAA

1 Background philosophy for the creation of an international academic institution in the field of astronautics

"The Founding Committee of the Academy, led by Dr Th. VON KARMAN, patterned the structure of the organization after the great classical scientific academies such as the Academia dei Lincei in Rome (founded 1603), the Royal Society in London (1662), and the Academie des Sciences in Paris (1666) with the difference that the Academy of Astronautics is international in character and limited to space research and exploration. The classical academies, created at the birth of modern science in the seventeenth century, served in a remarkable manner the phenomenal advance of man's new method of understanding the nature and of applying this understanding for the benefit of mankind".

"The classical academies, with essentially modest means, made their vast contributions simply by bringing together individuals to exchange ideas and experiences, to make studies and recommendations, and to bring the results of their work to the attention of their communities ..."

"It has been recognized generally that astronautics is by its very nature international. The study of the Universe is a deep aspiration of mankind, and the use of the space environment will affect all the inhabitants of our planet Earth".

"Furthermore, undertakings in extra-terrestrial space are of such complexity and involve so much expense in manpower and materials that the pooling of ideas inevitably produces incalculable savings ..."

This quotation is to be brought to the attention of the Academy membership and a wider scientific community because in this highly interesting memorandum, the philosophy of the architects of the IAA has been spelled out in a clear and outstanding manner. It will enable us better to understanding the substance and language of the first Statutes of the Academy, the purposes and functions of the newly created institution, its internal structure and also the initial composition of its membership.

2 Birth of the Academy and its development up to 1980

On 2 September 1959 a first, in London, resolution was adopted in which it decided "that an International Academy of Astronautics of the International Astronautical Federation be established consisting of individuals who have distinguished themselves in one of the fields of astronautics or one of branches of all sciences of fundamental importance for the exploration of space".

The preparatory work leading up to the functioning of the Academy was entrusted to a Founding Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr Theodor VON KARMAN, who later on became the initial Director of the Academy. The Founding Committee, which had 23 members from 10 countries, was responsible for the drafting of the Statutes of the Academy. In this task, as stated in the historical background of the Academy published in a brochure on the occasion of the Academy's first decade in 1970, Dr Th. VON KARMAN as Chairman of the Founding Committee was especially aided by Frank J. MALINA, Andrew G. HALEY, John COBB COOPER, and by Leonid I. SEDOV.

The IAA Statutes, as worked out by this group of drafters and endorsed by the full Founding Committee, were approved on 15 August 1960 in Stockholm. The first meeting of the Academy took place during the same Congress, on 16 August 1960.

According to Article 1 of its Statutes, the IAA was to consist of individuals who have distinguished themselves in some branch of Basic Sciences, Engineering Sciences and Life Sciences, especially in aspects connected with astronautics. The Academy was therefore divided into three Sections to be comprised of Members and Corresponding Members. Only Corresponding Members could be elected Members and only Members had the right to vote and to hold office on the governing body of the Academy.

The initial membership of the Academy included the participants on the Founding Committee and additional Members chosen by the Founding Committee. Its total was only 45 Members from 15 countries. The IAA Statutes, however, authorized each Section of the Academy to have 60 Members and 120 Corresponding Members beginning with the Third Regular Meeting of the Academy, with additional increases to be proposed at subsequent regular meetings by the President. By the end of its first decade in 1970, the IAA membership grew to 437 Members and Corresponding Members from 29 countries, though an elaborated election system did not permit the use of all possibilities for growth nor to promptly fill all the occurring vacancies.

This is why, during the first decade of its existence, the Academy acting under the leadership of its third President Dr Charles S. DRAPER, tried to find a remedy for this situation.

The original, rather rigid election procedures were eased by introducing two lists of candidates, a preferential list of those enjoying widespread support, and a regular list including all other nominees.

In addition to Members and Corresponding Members, the IAA Statutes provided for the election of Honorary Members once every two years. Honorary Members were chosen by the Award and Fellowship Committee, one of two Statutory Committees of the Academy (besides a Finance Committee). Nominations for honorary membership could be made by any Member of the Academy. By 1970, the IAA had 11 Honorary Members, among them one of the first US astronauts (John GLENN) and the first russian woman cosmonaut (Valentina NIKOLAYEVA-TERESHKOVA).

The initial IAA Statutes provided that the Academy should hold its regular meetings on a biennial basis at the place and time of the annual Congress. This rule permitted both organizations to co-operate closely and complement their efforts. This co-operation became particularly evident during the International Astronautical Congresses to which the IAA regularly contributed by convening symposia, roundtables and other specialized meetings organized by its Committees.

Since the establishment of the Academy in 1960, its activities have been governed by the Board of Trustees. Under the first Statutes, this body consisted of a President, four Vice-Presidents, twelve Trustees, and the Past President. The President of the Federation and the President of the International Institute of Space Law became non-voting members of the Board of Trustees. The President and the Vice-Presidents were to be elected from among the Members of the Academy for a term of two years, by a majority vote of Members present at the regular meeting of the Academy.

Four Members from each of the three Sections should be elected as Trustees of the Academy also for a term of two years, each Trustee elected by the Members of his Section. The President should designate a Vice-President, to serve as chairman of each Section of the Academy. The President also had the authority to appoint all members of Academy committees, except the Finance Committee, which was to be named by the Board of Trustees, and the Award and Fellowship Committee, the membership of which should be confirmed by the Board of Trustees.

Upon the recommendation of the President, the Board of Trustees appointed a Legal Counsel for the Academy, who should furnish advice on all problems requiring legal consideration. Andrew G. HALEY, one of the founding fathers of the Academy, became the first IAA Legal Counsel. He served the Academy with enthusiasm and skill until his death in 1966.

Moreover, the IAA Statutes provided for the appointment of a Secretary of the Academy, to be named by the Board of Trustees. The Secretary should act as secretary of the governing body of the Academy and all committees, conduct the correspondence of the Academy and be the custodian of their records. For almost two decades this position was held by Miss Hélène VAN GELDER who served the Academy with dedication and efficiency.

3 Reasons for reshaping the Academy

By 1980, two decades elapsed since the establishment of the International Academy of Astronautics. Throughout this period, the Academy was instrumental in fostering the natural, engineering and life sciences relating to astronautics and assumed a considerable place in the existing structure of international non-governmental institutions dedicated to the peaceful uses of outer space.

Despite positive results, however, some difficulties also emerged in the life of the Academy, particularly during the second decade of its existence. Some of them were caused by outside circumstances, other had their origin in the structure and procedures of the Academy. A growing number of members of the Academy were feeling that a transformation of the Academy had become necessary to adapt this institution to new conditions. In particular, a thorough reconsideration of the role of its membership, and a restructuring of the Academy were considered as most desirable for the Academy to strengthen its role. The original division of the Academy membership into three sections, together with a rather complicated electoral system, created obstacles to recruiting all outstanding specialists working in different fields of astronautics. The door to membership in the Academy should be held open to all qualified candidates. Furthermore, some modifications to the organs of the Academy- the plenary meeting of all members, the Board of Trustees and the Academy committees - became necessary. While the basic structure and principles of these organs could be maintained, the functions and powers of each organ should be more properly defined and interrelated.

It was evident that such a general change in the structure of the Academy had to be reflected in the fundamental legal document of the Academy - its Statutes. This is why the then President C. STARK DRAPER initiated a thorough redrafting of the Academy Statutes. In this endeavour, all positive elements of the existing organization of the Academy and the continuity of the Academy should be preserved, but at the same time improvements had to be attempted.

Preliminary discussions took place in the governing body of the Academy, the Board of Trustees, which considered all of the problems involved in detail at its regular meeting in April 1982, having already before it a first draft of revised Statutes with comments, prepared by the Legal Counsel of the Academy. Thoughts and suggestions advanced during the preliminary discussions referred mainly to the following points.

The rights and duties of members should be further elaborated, particularly to the effect that all members should be committed to promote the scientific activities of the Academy and to further international co-operation in the field of astronautics.

There was general support for re-structuring the Academy from three to four Sections. The sizes of the Sections should not necessarily be identical, but would rather depend on the degree of involvement of different sciences in astronautics and on the numbers of available candidates.

However, on the question of classes of membership, two schools of thinking existed: one school deemed it essential to maintain the distinction between Members and Corresponding Members, though it admitted that the existing promotion procedure should be eased and that Corresponding Members should be given greater opportunity for active participation in the life of the Academy. The other school of thinking preferred to abolish the distinction, considering it rather arbitrary and failing to encourage a greater involvement of all members in the activities of the Academy.

At the same time, another question arose, namely whether the membership of the Sections should be limited to agreed quotas or whether the Sections should remain more or less open-ended, with the Academy merely establishing from time to time target numbers for its growth.

While no substantial change in the structures of organs of the Academy was recommended, some new ideas regarding the officers of the Academy were advanced. Thus, the idea of having an officer who would play a substantial role in outlining scientific programmes for the Academy was generally supported. It was also felt that the roles of the Vice-Presidents should be more connected with activities of individual Sections and that the function of the Section Chairmen should be more clearly defined. Finally, a Treasurer should become a member of the governing body of the Academy and serve as chairman of the Finance Committee.

Discussions on these and other issues developed in an ad hoc Committee established in 1982, by the Board of Trustees, to review the Statutes. This Committee was headed by Dr George E. MUELLER who later the same year became the fourth President of the Academy. In order to complete this task a special meeting of the ad hoc Committee was convened in Montreux (Switzerland) in February 1983 to discuss a revised draft of the Statutes (and also of its Bylaws), which was presented by the Chairman of the Committee. The text that resulted from these deliberations was then considered in April 1983, by the board of Trustees at its spring meeting in Paris. Subsequently, it was finalized on the basis of the Board's consideration and with due regard to comments received before and after this meeting from a number of IAA members by mail. The draft Statutes (together with the draft of the Bylaws) was then submitted to the Academy at its regular meeting in Budapest and unanimously adopted by members present at that meeting on 11 October 1983.

At this juncture, two particular questions relating to the procedure used for amending the IAA Statutes should be clarified with respect to provisions of both the Federation Constitution and the IAA Statutes: did the IAA adopt its new Statutes with or without an endorsement of the Federation and, if the IAA acted alone, was it entitled to do so?

It should be recalled that the Federation was a parent body of the IAA as indicated by the above-mentioned documents and also by a close collaboration of these organizations which developed during the foregoing decades. According to Article 18, § (h) of the Federation Constitution, the General Assembly was empowered to create the IAA and to approve is Statutes. The initial Statutes of the Academy were in fact approved by the supreme governing body of the Federation on 15 August 1960-the day which is considered as the date of birth of the IAA.

On the other hand, neither the Federation Constitution nor the IAA Statutes that were in force at the time of the Budapest meeting in 1983 required a formal submission of any amendments to the IAA Statutes to the Federation for approval, regardless of their substance or consequences. According to Article 2, § (a) under (vi) of the IAA Statutes, one of the powers of the IAA was "to adopt, add to or amend the Statutes for the regulation of the affairs of the Academy", provided only "that the Academy shall not enact Statutes, or amendments thereto, which are inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution of the Federation." And according to Article 6 § (c), the IAA Statutes was "subject to amendment only by the Academy upon the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the Members present at a regular meeting, or special meeting called for that purpose..." The regular meeting of the Academy when adopting the new Statutes, acted in good faith on the basis of, and in conformity with these provisions, for the IAA membership, was convinced that the amendments adopted, though far-reaching in some respects but not changing the main purposes and character of the Academy, were fully consistent with the Federation Constitution.

In the introduction to his 1983 report to the IAA which was published at the same time, the President of the Academy clearly stated:

"To enable the IAA to achieve its own destiny among the world's scientific bodies, it has become timely to establish the independence of the Academy from its parent, the International Astronautical Federation. This independence will become reality with the adoption of the new Statutes of the Academy. Independence, however, does not imply a lack of closeness. Quite the contrary, the Academy will maintain its strong and close affiliation with the Federation. Academy members will continue in the leadership of the Federation and many Academy meetings and symposia will continue to co-occur with those of the Federation. The IAA owes a large debt of gratitude to the Federation for its enduring support".

4 New statutes and recent development of the Academy

Within the scope of this paper, only the essential features of the present legal basis of the IAA can be considered.

Unlike the initial Statutes, which were inserted in a single document, the new constitutional arrangement of the IAA has been enshrined in two documents: the first, called the Statutes, comprises a set of basic principles and provisions that should remain stable for a relatively longer period of time; the second, called the Bylaws, comprises additional rules and regulations regarding the procedures for the creation and functioning of the IAA bodies in accordance with the Statutes. Authority concerning the adoption and eventual amendment of the Bylaws has been reserved to the Board of Trustees since it may be necessary to adjust them in a more flexible way, according to the needs of the Academy, from time to time.

4.1 Purposes and Functions

In the new Statutes, the purposes to be followed by the Academy, as well as its functions, are spelled out in considerable detail. The Statutes define the place to be sought by the Academy within the existing structure of international scientific co-operation. As clearly expressed in Article 1, § 2, "the purposes of the Academy are to foster the development of astronautics for peaceful purposes; to recognize individuals who have distinguished themselves in a branch of science or technology related to astronautics; and to provide a programme through which the membership can contribute to international endeavours and co-operation in the advancement of aerospace science".

Though the IAA functions have remained essentially unchanged under the new Statutes, they are now spelled out in a more elaborate way. This is particularly obvious from the first two subparas of Article 1, § 3 which describe the main functions of the Academy as follows:

  1. "conducting an integrated scientific programme consisting of specialized and interdisciplinary meetings, dissemination of research, and publication of scientific information,
  2. encouraging international scientific co-operation through the creation of scientific committees, task forces and study groups, and the promotion of joint activities with other national and international organizations in astronautics and allied fields".

The other functions of the IAA consist of publishing its journal Acta Astronautica and books and papers dealing with astronautics, recognizing outstanding contributions to astronautics by awards, effecting close co-operation with other relevant organizations and carrying out of other tasks for the advancement of astronautics.

4.2 Membership

The new Statutes recognise four classes of membership: Honorary Members, Members, Corresponding Members and, as a special class, Supporting Donors. Unlike the first Statutes, the new ones offer guidelines for admission of members through definitions of the classes of membership. Moreover, specific criteria for election, appointing and recognizing members are fixed in the Bylaws.

Another new feature of the IAA Statutes has been created by definition of the membership privileges and responsibilities. In particular, it is provided that "all Members and Corresponding Members, either individually or through institutions with which they are associated, shall be committed to advancing the purposes and endeavours of the Academy." This provision is essential for attaining the aim of the Academy to become not only a representative, but also a working institution that would be able to produce effective results in the field of international co-operation in space sciences.

Unlike the first Statutes, the present ones do not fix the number of Academy members. The Board is to establish the number of individuals in each class of membership in keeping with the role, objectives and programmes of the Academy and its Sections, in accordance with the procedures established in the Bylaws.

On the other hand, any member of the Academy retains the right to terminate membership at any time and for any reason. And in order to maintain its effectiveness, the Academy will regularly review the list of its members. For this purpose, the Bylaws provide that the names of members who have lost working contact with the Academy shall, after three years of non-contact, be deleted from the list of active members. However, they may be reinstated to this list after establishing working contact with the Academy.

4.3 Sections

At present, the Academy is composed of four Sections: Basic Sciences, Engineering Sciences, Life Sciences and Social Sciences. The Bylaws include succinct definitions of the relevant categories of sciences that in general should be understood as denoting both "science and technology".

While the Academy is still comprised of Members and Corresponding Members, the difference between these two classes of membership has substantially changed.

Firstly, the class of Corresponding Members is now a kind of transitional status that should enable them soon to become full Members of the Academy. As a rule, Corresponding Members are to be eligible for full Membership after two years of service to the Academy. If not elected to full membership, they are subject to re-election as Corresponding Members upon completion of a five-year term. The overall target number of Corresponding Members should be only about one-fourth of the total number of Academy members.

Secondly, though consideration for nomination as full Members is to be primarily given to Corresponding Members, non-members who have made outstanding contributions to the development of astronautics are eligible for direct nomination as Members. Unlike Corresponding Members, full Members are elected for life.

4.4 Management

The provisions of the new Statutes concerning the management of the Academy have been substantially elaborated. Moreover, these provisions of the Statutes are supplemented by rules and procedures established in the Bylaws.

The governing body of the Academy, which has retained its traditional title "Board of Trustees", has become larger; it now includes twenty-two voting members as well as non-voting members, the Presidents of affiliated organizations and the Legal Counsel. In accordance with the main aim of the Academy which is promotion of international co-operation in the field of space sciences, the Board of Trustees is to endeavour to make decisions by a consensus of the members of the Board present at a meeting. Only if the Board is unable to reach consensus, a decision should be made by a majority of the voting members present, with the President casting a deciding vote in case of a tie.

While the Academy has maintened a President and four Vice-Presidents as its Officers, a new element consists in the role of the Vice-Presidents as chairmen of the four Standing Committees. These are:

1 - the Scientific Programmes Committee,

2 - the Publications Committee,

3 - the Awards and Membership Committee,

4 - the Finance Committee.

These bodies are responsible for preparation of policy recommendations and guidance of operations in particular areas of Academy affairs. In addition to Standing Committees, special committees may be established to assist the Academy in ad hoc matters.

Under the new Statutes and Bylaws the role of Sections and the Section Chairmen has been substantially increased. Four members from each of the four Sections are elected Trustees of the Academy, representing their respective Sections. In consultation with the Vice-President for Scientific Programmes, the Section Chairmen develop Section plans. Each Chairman, together with the other Trustees from the Section, is responsible to the President of the Academy for the Section operations and submits biennial reports on the progress made in the disciplines covered by the Section. These provisions should enable the Sections of the Academy to become effective components of the Academy.

4.5 Basis for growing activities

These are but a few outstanding features of the newly organized Academy. It is essential to add, however, that on this improved basis, the Academy has already marked a number of positive results.

Its membership has been growing and there were reasons to believe that the target quota established by the Board of Trustees for 1988 (1000 Members and 250 Corresponding Members).were reached. The Academy will thus comprise a substantive part of the world space science and technology community.

A network of Scientific Committees has been established and their terms of reference have been set up. The Committees have worked out their plans for the next five years and started to implement them. The sections are developing their own programmes of activities as evidenced, e.g. by a special session of Section 4 held during the Stockholm Congress, to deal with the Role of Social Sciences in Space Activities. In addition to the traditional Academy Award, a number of awards of individual Sections are being established in order to recognize outstanding contributions to the development of the respective categories of space sciences.

Another important step in the efforts for strengthening the role of the Academy has been made by improving its relations with other international organizations.

As in previous years, the IAA plans effectively to participate in the International Astronautical Congresses by sponsoring a number of symposia to be held under their scope. Eight such symposia (16 sessions) were scheduled in Innsbruck, Austria, 1986.

However, the new Statutes left the door open for affiliations with other international organizations. On the basis on this provision, the new leadership of the IAA managed to formalize the relationship with the COmmittee on SPAce Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions (COSPAR), thus opening new prospects for successful co-operation between IAA and COSPAR to their mutual benefit. Under an agreement on association the COSPAR President is entitled to become an ex officio member of the Academy's Board (as has been the case of the Presidents of the IAF and IISL), COSPAR's papers can be published in the Academy journal Acta Astronautica and COSPAR's nominations are expected to enhance the Academy membership, particularly in the Basic and Life Sciences Sections. All these points of the Academy's Board (as has been the case of the Presidents of the IAF and IISL), COSPAR's papers can be published in the Academy journal Acta Astronautica and COSPAR's nominations are expected to enhance the Academy membership, particularly in has been also scheduled for this occasion.

Developing closer contacts and co-operation with individual national academies of sciences has been another endeavour of the IAA. The first result of these efforts was the Symposium on the IAA History held during the 25th Anniversary Session of the IAA at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to which the President of this national Academy delivered a welcome address. Another action in this direction will be effected in the Austrian Academy of Sciences Palace in Vienna where the IAA scientific lecture on the Comet Halley Scientific Results has to survey all the international programmes devoted to this research.

Nevertheless, much still remains to be done during the next years in order to transform the Academy into a fully productive international institution with a world-wide reputation. The Architects of the Academy were very keen that the Academy hold scientific discussions of a forward looking kind, bringing new ideas, elaborating programmes and discovering new possibilities for international co-operation. Moreover, as a truly international organization, the Academy should develop these endeavours on a wide geographical basis, joining the efforts of scientists from the largest possible number of countries, including developing countries.

5 Conclusion: securing the future of the Academy

Stockholm was selected for celebrating the 25th anniversary of the founding of the International Academy of Astronautics not simply to coincide with the location of the 1985 International Astronautical Congress. The holding of the anniversary meeting in the city, where the Academy had begun its life, symbolized the enduring validity of the ideals that led to the establishment of this institution, the continuity of its activities and its essential identity under both the old and new Statutes. This meeting, held in the premises of a national academy having a high international reputation, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, offered an excellent opportunity to the IAA not only to remenber its origin and recall the highlights of the period under review, but also to reaffirm its commitments and to redefine its role in the light of present circumstances.

Entering the second quarter of a century, the Academy membership's thinking should now concentrate on how further to develop activities of the IAA, how to make them more effective and how to strengthen its position in the present structure of international organizations dealing with space matters. As a working international institution, in which space scientists from all nations concerned closely act together for recognized common purposes, the Academy can significantly contribute to the maintenance of peace and the growth of scientific co-operation relating to outer space. In this way, the Academy's future will be secured.





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