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Updated March 2014

 STUDIES AND POSITION PAPERS 

As world leaders discuss a future in space that includes ambitious multinational projects such as a lunar base and the eventual colonization of Mars, the Academy has embarked upon a series of studies to provide decision-makers an unbiased scientific and technological basis for their commitment to these programs. These multidisciplinary cosmic studies, reviewed by one thousand academicians from 78 countries, are examining alternatives for international cooperative ventures and their probable impact on the economic and social life of the nations involved. While the Cosmic Studies are real comprehensive works done by a large group of persons, Position Paper are limited efforts to emphasize important messages on limited scope. Both are elaborated gradually through various meetings and are reviewed at least several times by all the Academy members, providing unique and unbiased scientific and technological indisputable references to humankind elaborated by the most prestigious scientists and decision-makers. The cosmic study or position papers that are the subject of those reports were approved by the Board of Trustees of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring or funding organizations. For more information about the International Academy of Astronautics, visit the IAA home page at www.iaaweb.org. Copyright 2013 by the International Academy of Astronautics. All rights reserved. 

Most of the IAA studies are available for sale in hardcopy format through the IAA online shop. For the interested Academy members, an electronic version of the study is available through the traditional restricted area in the subdirectory "Active Members (R)" with the login and password that is provided to active Academicians. In the event you have lost this information, you can request login and password at "Contact us". The IAA Position Papers and Cosmic Studies are listed below from the most recently published:

Space Elevators: an Assessment of the Technological Feasibility and the Way Forward, published in 2013, 349 pages. This book addresses the simple and complex issues that have been identified through the development of space elevator concepts over the last decade. The report begins with a summary of those ideas in Edwards' and Westling's book The Space Elevator (2003). Out of these beginnings has risen a worldwide cadre focused upon their areas of expertise as applied to space elevator development and operational infrastructure. The report answers some basic questions about the feasibility of a space elevator infrastructure. A preview of the main questions and answers shows the depth and breadth of this Cosmic Study: Why a space elevator? Can it be done? How would all the elements fit together to create a system of systems? What are the technical feasibility of each major space elevator element?

Space Debris Environment Remediation, published in 2013, 85 pages. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities, and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. The present report, with a focus on removal concepts and technical options for debris environment remediation, is intended to pave the way for a follow-on IAA study on “Orbital Debris Removal: Policy, Legal, Political and Economic Considerations”. That study addresses in more detail the feasibility of technical, operational, legal and economical solution approaches.

Space Expectations: Shaping the Next Fifty Years,
published in 2013, 23 pages. The purposes of the International Academy of Astronautics are to foster the development of astronautics for peaceful purposes, to recognize individuals who have distinguished themselves in a branch of science or technology related to astronautics, to provide a program through which the membership can contribute to international endeavors and partnerships in the advancement of aerospace science, while in cooperation with national science or engineering academies. This report is a reflection of those goals as it summarizes two studies that positively involved the general public with the space community ("Space Impact upon Society" and "Space Expectations").

The Architecture of Space: Tools for Development in the 21st Century, published in 2013, 32 pages. The purpose of this study was to identify professional disciplines as tools that should collaborate and interact with each other in order to achieve comprehensive and balanced design solutions that would satisfy human needs during space flight and might be applied to diverse space missions. The study attempted to demonstrate importance of addressing all types of human activities at earlier stages of space structures design rather than adapting existing engineering solutions to various human needs and incorporating them into final design product. That is especially important for planning long-term missions to farther destinations than Low Earth Orbit practices with demographically, culturally and professionally diverse habitants onboard of spacecrafts. There are no “small” issues in designing facilities for dangerous and extremely expensive missions to Moon, Mars, asteroids and other destinations. That applies to technical and human sides of design equally.

Key Technologies to Enable Near-Term Interstellar Scientific Precursor Missions
, published in 2013, 95 pages. This Cosmic Study considers the near-term implementation of robotic Interstellar Precursor probes, which should be considered as precursors to true interstellar missions. Destinations for such missions include the heliopause at >100 AU and the Sun's inner gravity focus at 550 AU. Current propulsion systems capable of reaching such destinations on trajectories requiring decades of travel time include the solar sail and nuclear-electric rocket. As well as presenting a consideration of near- and far-term propulsion technologies to implement such missions, this Study considers multiple aspects of potential destinations, science, and associated technologies.

Space Solar Power, The First International Assessment of Space Solar Power: Opportunities, Issues And Potential Pathways Forward, published in 2011, 249 pages. Now, more than ever, large-scale and sustainable new energy sources are needed to meet global needs while satisfying environmental concerns.  During the past 40 years, various national studies have been performed of the concept of space solar power – i.e., using Solar Power Satellites (SPS) to harvest sunlight in space and deliver green energy via wireless power transmission to markets on Earth.  During 2008-2010, the first international assessment of space solar power was conducted by a study group under the auspices of the International Academy of Astronautics.   This document is the final report from the SSP study group; it addresses the technical feasibility of the concept, prospective markets and expected policy issues.  The report describes and evaluates in some depth three alternative SPS concepts; it concludes with a high-level set of findings and specific recommendations for the consideration of the global space and energy community.  Overall, the study group found that space solar power is technically feasible, but that economics of SPS can only be determined by means of international end-to-end systems studies, focused technology maturation and systems-level demonstrations.  An international roadmap for realizing this goal is presented, which could achieve a major pilot-plant scale demonstration within 10-15 years.  

Protecting the Environment of Celestial Bodies: The Need for Policy and Guidelines, published in 2011, 81 pages. This IAA Study on Protecting the Environment of Celestial Bodies (PECB) aims to provide an overview of existing methods of planetary protection and their feasibility from the perspective of biological, chemical, legal, economic and other viewpoints. By doing so, the Study goes deliberately beyond the interpretation of “Planetary Protection” by COSPAR (Committee on Space Research), which is generally used as a set of methods for protecting the planets from biological contamination to avoid compromising future astrobiological research. In view of limits on the size of this volume, the Study concentrates mainly on the Moon and Mars environments.  It is fully recognized, however, that the environments of other celestial bodies, including asteroids that may be visited by manned spacecraft before a mission to Mars, are also worthy of consideration.


Future Planetary Robotic Exploration: the Need for International Cooperation
, Published 2010, 44 pages.
The report from the IAA study on "Future Planetary Robotic Exploration: the Need for International Cooperation" was approved by the Board of Trustees of IAA and presented at the historic Heads of Space Agencies Summit on November 17, 2010 in Washington DC, US. The report reviews the scientific quest to increase our knowledge of the origin and evolution of the solar system, and to search for signs of life within it. It gives a summary of planned robotic exploration activities, as well as challenges and needed R&D solutions. The report addresses in particular: 1) Scientific exploration of the solar system - The driving science goals for the coming decades; 2) Space weather and the characterization of the space environment; 3) R&D investment and key enabling technologies ; 4) Human-mission technology validation; 5) The case and potential areas for international cooperation in robotic and human exploration of deep space.

Space-Applications in Climate Change and Green Systems: the Need for International Cooperation, Published 2010, 66 pages. Over the past half-century, space systems and activities have made crucial contributions to the study and understanding of climate change, through the multi-decade accumulation of vast quantities of scientific data concerning the atmosphere, the oceans, the lands, and the mechanisms of exchanges between these domains. The future activities of the global space community can make significant contributions to monitoring and understanding both the causes and the consequences of Climate Change, as well as to mitigating its effects. This report of the International Academy of Astronautics addresses these potential contributions, examining three critically important themes: observing Earth from space, leveraging the integration of space and ground systems, and enabling novel green systems and technologies. The report finds that there is already significant and successful international cooperation, particularly as regards Earth observation, but that still more can be done. The report concludes by presenting the recommendations of the Academy to the global space community for action in each thematic area, including crosscutting actions for enhanced international cooperation both among the members of the space community, and with organizations external to it.

Space-Based Disaster Management: the Need for International Cooperation, Published 2010, 79 pages. The report briefly describes the significant role played by space technology vis-à-vis major natural disasters, overall shortcomings in the presently available space observations and in early warning/forecasting methods.  Further it gives an account of various international initiatives which are providing space-based information and services for monitoring and mitigating different natural disasters.  Possible satellite constellations carrying both optical and microwave sensors capable of providing data at frequent intervals as well as those providing measurements required as precursors for earthquakes are indicated.  The study makes various recommendations related to virtual satellite constellations, data sharing policy, access to in-situ observations across geographical boundaries, strengthening collaborative efforts in developing early warning methods, augmenting communication networks for ensuring availability of data and value-added products in near real-time and necessary efforts required for capacity building and outreach activities.

Future Human Spaceflight: the Need for International Cooperation, Published 2010, 62 pages. This report, written by an international team, is an end-to-end assessment of the Human Spaceflight issues starting from the basic exploration questions, and ending with possible international cooperation implementation schemes. This Study provides concrete proposals on how to move beyond the International Space Station program and to make Human Spaceflight part of a broader international agenda. The ultimate objective of space exploration is to extend human presence across the Solar System and create communities beyond the Earth. The long-term sustainability of worldwide space exploration programs will benefit from the participation and support of a broader community outside of the current space industry and the inclusion of the public. The involvement of existing, emerging, and developing space nations in such endeavors will both strengthen existing partnerships and foster new ones.

Artificial Gravity Research to enable Human Space Exploration, Published 2009, 37 pages. The scope of the report covered the key biomedical research questions that need to be answered to make artificial gravity a practical countermeasure and the facilities and flight opportunities required to answer key questions to accomplish the necessary research. Human and animal experiments, on Earth and in space, were considered for both short-radius intermittent centrifugation and long-radius continuous rotation paradigms.

Dealing with the Threat to Earth from Asteroids and Comets,
Published 2009, 140 pages. The Earth has been struck by asteroids and comets (Near-Earth Objects, NEOs) many times throughout its history. This report of the International Academy of Astronautics addresses the nature of the threat, expected future impacts, and the consequences of impacts from various size NEOs.  It reviews current programs to detect, track, and characterize NEOs, and the future improvements required in order to take responsible and timely action.  It identifies a number of techniques that could alter an incoming NEO’s orbit so as to avoid an impact.  It addresses the organizational aspects that will have to be dealt with if a serious international capability is to be developed and employed to mitigate the threat.  It then addresses behavioral factors and the sociological and psychological aspects of the threat and attempts at its mitigation before, during, and after an intercept attempt, whether successful or not.  Lastly the report examines some of the principal international policy implications that must be dealt with if the world is to act in a timely, unified, and effective way with the very real threat due to NEOs. 

Medical Safety and Liability Issues for Short-Duration Commercial Orbital Space Flights, Published 2009, 32 pages. The objective of this report is to identify and prioritize medical screening considerations in order to preserve the health and promote the safety of paying passengers who intend to participate in short-duration flights (up to 4 weeks) onboard commercial orbital space vehicles. This report is intended to provide general medical guidance to the operators of orbital manned commercial space vehicles for the medical assessment of prospective passengers. More specifically, this report is intended for medical personnel employed by commercial space vehicle operators. Physicians supported by other appropriate health professionals who are trained and experienced in the concepts of aerospace medicine should perform the medical assessments of all prospective space passengers. In view of the wide variety of possible approaches that can be used to design and operate orbital manned commercial space vehicles in the foreseeable future, the IAA medical safety considerations are generic in scope and are based on current analysis of physiological and pathological changes that may occur as a result of human exposure to operational and environmental risk factors present during orbital space flight.

Psychology and Culture during Long-Duration Space Missions,
First Published 2009, DLR, 55 pages. The objective of this report is twofold: a) to describe the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, and interpersonal issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel; and b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations on the Moon, Mars, and beyond.  Potential readers include members of the IAA; space agency personnel, including astronauts and cosmonauts; and people interested in the psychological and cultural aspects of humans working in space.  The focus is on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation. 

IAA Study on Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Systems, Published 2008, AIAA, 284 pages, ISBN-13: 978-1-56347-951-9. The objective of this report is to give an expert, straightforward, and complete outlook on the uses of nuclear energy applied to space missions. Starting from fundamental physics, Chapter 1 explains the advantages of nuclear energy and explores the performance limits of nuclear propulsion in terms of specific impulse, thrust, power, and mass. Following chapters discuss the tremendous accomplishments of the past and moves into more current technology. High-power electric propulsion of all types is extensively covered. These chapters show how nuclear power can be engineered into a propulsion system now, not in ten or twenty years. Final chapters deal with the legislative and safety issues connected with the use of nuclear power on spacecraft according to UN treaty for Outer Space issues such as practical designs of space- or ground-based nuclear reactors. Finally an appendix gives accurate and up to date information on the effects of radiation on human health and what is to be expected from the use of nuclear power in space. An account of the Chernobyl accident is included. 

The Next Steps in Exploring Deep Space,  First Published 2007, University Press (India) Private Limited, Himayatnagar, Hyderabad, 146 pages. The purpose of this report is to articulate a vision for the scientific exploration of space in the first half of the 21 st Century. The compelling scientific and cultural imperatives that guide this vision provide the context for a logical, systematic, and evolutionary architecture for human expansion into the solar system. This architecture represents a new approach leading ultimately to human exploration of Mars and a permanent human presence in the solar system. Within this framework, scientific objectives are used to determine the destinations for human explorers, and each successive destination and new set of capabilities is established as a stepping-stone to further exploration. Robotic missions continue to play a key role in achieving the science objectives and preparing for human exploration. Such an integrated robotic-human exploration program can be safe, cost-effective, exciting, and scientifically rewarding, and thus can have the public appeal and political support that are prerequisites for sustainable long-term human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. 

Space Debris Mitigation: Implementing Zero Debris Creation Zones,  October 2005, Paris, France, 61 pages. For several decades, orbital debris has been identified as a serious concern! This orbital debris potentially threatens future space missions, mainly in Low Earth Orbits and in Geostationary Earth Orbit, due to the risk of high energy collisions with valuable spacecraft. A complete presentation of the topic has been published with the year 2000 revision of the IAA Position Paper on Orbital Debris 1. There are only very limited ways to improve the risks or effects of collisions: • Removal of large potential colliders does not seem practically feasible today • Collision avoidance is possible only with large catalogued debris • Shielding of critical spacecraft is possible up to a low energy limit only: debris larger than 1 or 2 cm impacting an active spacecraft may have very deadly effect • Mitigation is by far the most efficient strategy: limiting the number of orbital debris in the critical orbital zones is the most efficient strategy for long term stability of the orbital population. The study covered both the spacecraft and the launchers topics. Major recommendations are: • There shall be no generation of operational debris. • There shall be no risk of explosion following end of mission: any spacecraft or upper stage left in orbit shall be “passivated” • Two orbital regions shall be protected: Low Earth Region up to 2000 km and Geostationary Earth Orbit. Clear motto as a long term strategy: no orbital debris creation within these two protected regions. May be replaced in the coming decade by no long lived orbital debris creation within the two protected regions. 

Space Traffic Management,  September 2005, Paris, France, 104 pages. At first glance, the management of space traffic does not appear to be a pressing problem. On closer examination, this judgement has to be challenged. A high level and ever growing number of launches from more and more launch sites and spaceports, the participation of non-governmental entities, the positioning of satellite constellations, an increase in space debris and the advent of reusable launch vehicles support this view. Conceptualizing space traffic management will turn out to become a relevant task during the next two decades. Space traffic management however, will limit the freedom of use of outer space. Therefore an international consensus on internationally binding regulations will only be achieved, if States identify certain urgency and expect a specific as well as collective benefit – including an economic benefit - from this. The study addresses or directs decision makers in UNCOPUOS, ITU and ICAO to approach specific problems, organizations which are building blocks for a future space traffic management regime. 

 

Cost Effective Earth Observation Missions,  October 2005, A. A. Balkema Publisher, a member of Taylor & Francis Group plc. Laiden, The Netherlands, 160 pages. Publication sponsored by DLR, Germany. Cost-effective missions can be achieved by using different approaches and methods. One of the possible approaches is taking full advantage of the ongoing technology developments leading to further miniaturization of engineering components, development of micro-technologies for sensors and instruments which allow designing dedicated, well-focused Earth observation missions. This Study provides a definition of cost-effective Earth observation missions, information about background material and organizational support, shows the cost drivers and how to achieve cost-effective missions, and provides a chapter dedicated to training and education. The focus is on the status quo and prospects of applications in the field of Earth observation.

Spacearts - The Space Art Database,   Spacearts is an online database providing information about art related to outer space since the middle of the 19th century until the present. In the past century a new and highly diverse genre of art has emerged - Space Art. Artists have been at the forefront of space exploration since its very beginning. Their works of imagination have stimulated and catalyzed a new human endeavor. Works of art and literature about space have both anticipated and stimulated space development while exploring destinations and technological concepts that were often too dangerous, too distant or too advanced for the science and technology of the moment. The goal of "Spacearts - the Space Art Database" is to document this important and exciting art form and to make it be publicly accessible. To access the database click here:  (Spacearts - The Space Art Database)
 

IAC History Symposia 1967 – 2000,  August 2004, Paris, France, 414 pages With the advent of the new millennium, it is timely summarize the different works presented at the "History of Astronautics IAA Symposia" held since 1967 at International Astronautical Congresses sponsored by the International Academy of Astronautics. The first IAA Symposium dedicated to the History of Rockets and Rocketry was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1967. From the first History Session, which was chaired by Eugen Emme(USA), to the one held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000, 458 papers were registered. During the same period, many subjects were covered by authors from all around the world. The purpose of this work is to highlight history of rocketry and spaceflight. To access the full text click here: (IAC History Symposia 1967 - 2000

 

The Impact of Space Activities upon Society,   February 2005, Paris, France, 70 pages. As the 21st century gets further underway, the impact of space activities upon the welfare of humanity will only increase. We can imagine that during the 21st century the human expansion and insight into the cosmos will produce some of the more significant events of this new century. In addition to the enormous knowledge that space exploration has already delivered, space technologies have become integrated into everyday life so deeply that modern society could not function without them. The Academy helped to formulate the future through recognition of the positive impacts of space activities upon society. The Academy has created a book which gives personal insights from world leaders, scientists, recognized authorities and influential personalities as well as space experts in response to the following statement: "I believe that space activities are impacting society through......" The intention is to illustrate that space activities have a positive and beneficial impact on everyday life and society and thus help people to understand that everyone benefits. We are only 50 years into the next expansion of the human spirit.  What we find and where we go will impact society in manners unforeseen.  With this book, we record the start. To access the full text click here:  (The Impact of Space Activities upon Society)

Space to Promote Peace (with focus on reconstruction of Afghanistan),   September 2004, Paris, France, 119 pages, Can Space technology promote peace and development in the world? Can Space technology contribute to meet efficiently such a challenge and aid the Afghan and the international efforts of reconstruction in Afghanistan? Can Space- based tools make a difference? These are questions that nations having space-capabilities have to answer and make a combined effort to pitch in support of promoting peace and bring in an improvement in the quality of life of these people. Intuitively, countries with access to space assets know that space-based applications can have the potential to enhance life on Earth, including contributions to environmental monitoring, natural resource management, health, and therefore to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life in these countries. However, they know that the capabilities of space technology are still not used in a huge part of the world where they could be extremely useful, particularly in Afghanistan: The challenge is implementation. 

Preparing for the 21st Century Program of Integrated Lunar and Martian Exploration and Development,

Paris, France, 114 pages. This report is an initial review of plans for an extensive program to survey and develop the Moon and to explore the planet Mars during the current century. It presents updated typical plans for separate, associated and fully integrated programs of Lunar and Martian research, exploration and development, and concludes that detailed integrated plans must be prepared and be subject to formal criticism and 'peer review'. In particular, the claims of daring, innovative, but untried systems must be compared with the known performance of existing technologies. The time has come to supersede the present haphazard approach to comprehensive strategic space studies with a formal international structure to plan for future advanced space missions under the aegis of the world's national space agencies, and supported by governments and the corporate sector.

International Exploration of Mars: A Mission whose time has come,   April 1993, Paris, France, 133 pages. The Study concludes that international space exploration uniquely offers humanity access to an exciting frontier of new knowledge. Discoveries on new worlds in new environments by robotic explorers add to our knowledge of the Solar system, but they also explore the possibilities of extension of human life beyond our fragile Earth. Subsequent visits by astronauts to these other worlds will provide real data on the feasibility of such dreams. Travel to Mars is technically challenging. Therefore, a comprehensive program of Martian exploration must include both robotic and human missions. The study recommends a focused robotic precursor effort with an on-going effort of robotic missions to assist the choice of the emplacement of human outposts and continue human scientific exploration. The form of the Mars exploration program will be influenced by the nature of the organization created to implement it. In this Cosmic Study the Academy has argued strongly for an international effort. Although the current programs of Mars exploration are already international in character, it a need is foreseen to increase the level of cooperation and coordination for future missions. A world which is being drawn together ever more closely by advances in communication and transportation needs consensus on visions of a future accessible to all. 

 

The Case for an International Lunar Base,   November 1989, Paris, France, 64 pages. The study concludes that development on an international Lunar Base would occur in four phases: phase 1 would focus on lunar exploration culminating with the construction and operation of a manned lunar orbit station by the year 2004; phase 2 would involve the establishment of a lunar research laboratory; phase 3 would deal with the development of a major production facility and phase 4 would witness the evolution (possibly through commercial backing) of the Moon base into a full-blown lunar settlement with a high degree of self-sufficiency by the end of the 21st century.

 

EVA Safety, Space Suit Interoperability,  September 1996, Paris France, 15 pages. The position paper concludes the need to remedy the lack of space suit systems interoperability and makes recommendations, both system specific and generic, on how to improve the situation based on identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies. This will support decision makers and engineers in providing a maximum of safety and operational flexibility of future EVA space suit systems expected to be necessary for the operation of space transportation vehicles and orbital bases. Assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station will, by the turn of this century require some 25-40 extravehicular activities (EVA) sorties of 300-500 hours per year. This annual effort is equivalent to the total Russian Salyut-MIR. The necessity to remove the critical incompatibilities to enhance mission flexibility and to increase the level of safety for EVA has been assessed. The requirement for international standards has been identified. In future international cooperation scenarios an EVA space suit system of any national origin must be able to support any other space suit system or spacecraft regardless of its origin. Therefore space suit interoperability is mandatory to warrant a maximum of safety. 

 

Inexpensive Scientific Satellite Missions,   June 1990, Paris, France, 23 pages. The Position Paper concludes that "inexpensive" scientific satellites, despite the non-precise definition of this notion, must fill the gaps between the major programs of the great space agencies, that they can be developed with short lead-times, and that the rules of management and technical implementation differ considerably from those applied in the major programs. The advantage of such class of satellites is obvious: it allows for higher flight frequencies and shorter times in implementing new technological developments. Ideally the lead-times can be made to correspond with the educational cycle of space science students. For many countries, no other than "inexpensive" satellites in this sense are conceivable for budgetary constraints. Hence there is a commonality between the programs of such nations and those which have the possibility of sending man into space and explore other planets. 

 

The Case For Small Satellites,   March 1993, Paris, France, 44 pages. The Position Paper concludes that there is a rationale for considering small satellite missions as a means of satisfying the needs of developed as well as developing countries. Governments and research institutions of all countries are urged to study, undertake and support small satellite programs for research, educational and applications purposes in accordance with their current technical and financial capabilities. The industrialized countries should take the lead in gathering and disseminating information, the developing nations should undertake to accede to, and to increase, such information. Particular encouragement should be given by the industrialized countries to projects that provide education motivation and launch opportunities should be made available by the operators of launch systems at reasonable conditions; raw data from Earth observation should be made available on a non-discriminatory basis for research and civilian applications to all countries. 

 

Position Paper on Orbital Debris,  September 2001, Paris, France, 37 pages (earlier version published May 1993). Human activities in space are increasingly at risk resulting from earlier uncontrolled production of artificial debris. Being concerned about this problem which causes a growing threat for the future of spaceflight, the paper elaborates on the need and urgency for action and indicates ways for their implementation. The following actions are recommended: No deliberate break-ups of spacecraft which produce debris in long-lived orbits; minimization of mission-related debris; passivation of all rocket bodies and spacecraft which remain in orbit after completion of their mission; selection of transfer orbit parameters to insure the rapid decay of transfer stages within 25 years; reorbiting of geostationary satellites at end-of-life (minimum altitude increase 300 km); separated ABM’s used for geostationary satellites should be inserted into a disposal orbit at least 300 km above the geostationary orbit; upper stages used to move geostationary satellites from GTO to GEO should be inserted into a disposal orbit at least 300 km above the geostationary orbit and freed of residual propellant. Since the above measures will not be sufficient to avoid an acceptable growth of the debris population, more effective measures will be required, such as deorbiting from LEO of spacecraft and upper stages at completion of their mission. 

Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence, April 1989, Paris, France, 2 pages. This text, endorsed by more than 15 international organizations, is a Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence. It is an agreement to observe principles for disseminating information in the event of detection of extraterrestrial intelligence. To access the full text click here: (Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence)

 
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